El ábaco chino antiguo recibe el reconocimiento de la UNESCO

El ábaco chino antiguo recibe el reconocimiento de la UNESCO

El ábaco, también llamado marco de conteo, es una herramienta de cálculo que se usó siglos antes de la adopción del sistema de numeración moderno escrito y todavía es ampliamente utilizado por comerciantes, comerciantes y empleados en Asia, África y otros lugares. Se puede utilizar para sumas, restas, multiplicaciones, divisiones, raíces cuadradas, raíces cúbicas y otros cálculos de alta velocidad. Algunos dispositivos pueden ser bastante grandes y complejos. Ahora, esta "computadora antigua" ha recibido crédito por su importancia histórica y cultural al ser agregada a la lista del patrimonio cultural inmaterial mundial.

El ábaco típico tiene un marco de madera y cuentas de madera, con dos cubiertas y más de siete varillas. La cubierta superior, que se conoce como cielo, tiene dos cuentas en cada barra. Cada cuenta tiene el valor de cinco. Hay cinco cuentas en cada varilla en la plataforma inferior, conocida como tierra. Cada uno tiene el valor de uno. Las cuentas se mueven hacia arriba y hacia abajo durante los cálculos.

Según la leyenda, el ábaco chino ("suan pan" o "zhusuan") fue inventado por el mítico Emperador Amarillo (Huangdi), padre de la civilización china. La documentación escrita más antigua conocida del ábaco chino data del siglo II a. C.

Según la UNESCO: “Zhusuan se usa ampliamente en la vida china y es un símbolo importante de la cultura tradicional china, que proporciona un fuerte sentido de identidad cultural. Se ha transmitido de generación en generación mediante métodos tradicionales de enseñanza oral y autoaprendizaje. Se cree que el entrenamiento en aritmética mental basada en el ábaco mejora la capacidad de atención, la memoria y la capacidad mental de un niño ".

En 1946, se organizó una competencia entre un experto en ábaco y la máquina sumadora eléctrica más avanzada de la época. El experto ganó: el ábaco fue el más rápido en todos los casos, excepto en la multiplicación de números grandes.

Hoy, contribuye al avance de las técnicas de cálculo, esquemas cognitivos, psicología educativa y desarrollo intelectual. También tiene una influencia de gran alcance en varios campos de la creatividad cultural, incluidas las costumbres populares, el idioma, la literatura, la escultura y la arquitectura.


    El ábaco chino antiguo recibe el reconocimiento de la UNESCO - Historia

    El arte centenario del tai chi, también llamado taijiquan, se ha unido a las filas de decenas de tradiciones chinas para ser nombradas Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial por la UNESCO.

    La organización de la ONU anunció el jueves que las aplicaciones tanto para tai chi como para Wangchuan La ceremonia, arraigada en una costumbre popular de adorar a una antigua deidad protectora, tuvo éxito. El Comité Intergubernamental para la Salvaguardia del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la UNESCO deliberó sobre los candidatos de este año durante las reuniones en línea que comenzaron el lunes, y finalmente seleccionó 32 nuevas incorporaciones de todo el mundo, incluida la cultura de sauna de Finlandia y el festival de iluminación de linternas de Corea del Sur.

    Con la última ronda de adiciones, China ahora lidera a todos los países con 42 "patrimonios culturales intangibles" oficialmente reconocidos. Otros incluyen la ópera de Pekín, el Festival del Barco del Dragón, la caligrafía tradicional, la acupuntura, los títeres de sombras y los cálculos matemáticos con el ábaco.

    los Wangchuan La ceremonia, también llamada ong chun, se originó a partir de la tradición de los navegantes que rezaban por seguridad antes de zarpar. El ritual, que ahora se centra en las áreas costeras de Xiamen y la bahía de Quanzhou en China, así como en la comunidad china en Melaka, Malasia, evoca recuerdos históricos de antiguos viajeros y honra la armonía entre la humanidad y el océano.

    Tai chi, un ejercicio tradicional caracterizado por movimientos circulares y canalización de la energía vital del cuerpo, o qi, se practica ampliamente en China tanto para la autodefensa como para la salud en general. Aunque tiene sus raíces en las artes marciales, sus principios de meditación y respiración regulada le han ayudado a ganar una gran popularidad como ejercicio terapéutico practicado por más de 100 millones de personas en todo el mundo.

    El estatus del tai chi como un arte marcial viable ha sido cuestionado en los últimos años. Los autodenominados maestros de tai chi Lei Lei, Chen Yong y Ma Baoguo fueron fácilmente derrotados por artistas marciales mixtos aficionados decididos a exponer a renombrados practicantes de tai chi que consideran fraudes. Muchos reaccionaron a las victorias asimétricas sugiriendo que quizás el tai chi, aunque útil para muchos, no debería considerarse en la misma categoría que las artes más físicas y combativas.

    La primera solicitud de China de consagrar el tai chi entre los Patrimonios Culturales Inmateriales del mundo fue rechazada por la UNESCO en 2008 por ser "demasiado vaga". No fue hasta casi una década después, en 2017, que el país solicitó nuevamente el reconocimiento del arte, en medio de especulaciones de que Corea del Sur y Japón planeaban presentar nominaciones similares.

    (Imagen de encabezado: Residentes de edad avanzada practican tai chi en un parque en Shanghai, 4 de diciembre de 2019. People Visual)


    Lista del Patrimonio Mundial

    En 1979, el Comité decidió inscribir el lago Ohrid en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial con arreglo a criterios naturales (iii). En 1980, esta propiedad se amplió para incluir el área cultural e histórica, y se agregaron los criterios culturales (i) (iii) (iv).

    Ampliación del "Parque de la selva tropical templada y subtropical de la costa este de Australia".

    el nombre cambió 2007 de 'Reservas de la selva tropical del este central (Australia)'

    Renominación del "Parque Nacional Uluru-Kata Tjuta" bajo criterios culturales.

    Los “Campanarios de Flandes y Valonia”, que anteriormente estaban inscritos en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forman parte de la propiedad transnacional “Los campanarios de Bélgica y Francia”.

    Ampliación del "Parque Nacional Jaú".

    Ampliación de la propiedad "Glacier Bay / Wrangell / St Elias / Kluane".

    La propiedad "Burgess Shale", que anteriormente estaba inscrita en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, es parte de los "Parques de las Montañas Rocosas canadienses".

    Ampliación de "El Palacio Potala y el Monasterio del Templo Jokhang, Lhasa" para incluir el área de Norbulingka.

    Los “Campanarios de Flandes y Valonia”, que anteriormente estaban inscritos en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forman parte de la propiedad transnacional “Los campanarios de Bélgica y Francia”.

    El "Castillo y finca de Chambord", que anteriormente estaba inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forma parte del "Valle del Loira entre Sully-sur-Loire y Chalonnes".

    El "Muro de Adriano", que anteriormente estaba inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forma parte de la propiedad transnacional "Fronteras del Imperio Romano".

    En el momento en que se amplió la propiedad, también se consideró aplicable el criterio cultural (iv).

    El "Templo Brihadisvara, Tanjavur", que anteriormente estaba inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, es parte de los "Grandes Templos Chola Vivientes".

    En el momento en que se amplió la propiedad, también se consideró aplicable el criterio cultural (iv).

    En el momento en que se amplió la propiedad, los criterios (iii) y (v) también se consideraron aplicables.

    El Comité decidió ampliar la propiedad cultural existente, el "Templo de Ggantija", para incluir los cinco templos prehistóricos situados en las islas de Malta y Gozo y cambiar el nombre de la propiedad como "Los Templos Megalíticos de Malta".

    El Parque Nacional Westland y Mount Cook y el Parque Nacional Fiordland, que anteriormente estaban inscritos en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forman parte de "Te Wahipounamu - Suroeste de Nueva Zelanda".

    En 1979, el Comité decidió inscribir el lago Ohrid en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial con arreglo a criterios naturales (iii). En 1980, esta propiedad se amplió para incluir el área cultural e histórica, y se agregaron los criterios culturales (i) (iii) (iv).

    El "Conjunto Convento de San Francisco de Lima", que anteriormente estaba inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forma parte del "Centro Histórico de Lima".

    Extensión de «Sites d'art rupestre préhistorique de la vallée de Côa», Portugal

    Ampliación de "Biertan y su iglesia fortificada".

    En el momento en que se amplió la propiedad, también se consideró aplicable el criterio natural (iv).

    Ampliación de la "Alhambra y el Generalife, Granada", para incluir el barrio del Albayzin.

    Ampliación de la "Mezquita de Córdoba".

    El inmueble “Parque Güell, Palacio Güell y Casa Milá de Barcelona”, inscrito anteriormente en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, forma parte de las “Obras de Antoni Gaudí”.

    Ampliación de las "Iglesias del Reino de Asturias", para incluir monumentos en la ciudad de Oviedo.

    Ampliación de la "Arquitectura mudéjar de Teruel".

    Extensión de «Sites d'art rupestre préhistorique de la vallée de Côa», Portugal

    Tras una encuesta de propiedad realizada a finales de la década de 1960, la propiedad de la totalidad de las murallas pasó en 1973 al Estado español, a través del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. Fue cedido a la Xunta de Galicia mediante Real Decreto en 1994.

    La Constitución española reserva ciertos derechos en relación con el patrimonio al gobierno central. No obstante, estos se delegan en los organismos competentes de las Comunidades Autónomas, en este caso la Xunta de Galicia. Para las murallas de Lugo, la Xunta está en la posición tanto de propietaria como de agencia competente. En virtud de la Ley del Patrimonio de Galicia, la Xunta está obligada a colaborar con las autoridades municipales para garantizar la protección y conservación de los monumentos catalogados, a quienes se delegan determinadas funciones. La Xunta opera a través de su Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural (Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural), con sede en Santiago de Compostela.

    El Plan Director de Conservación y Restauración de la Muralla Romana de Lugo (1992) recogió propuestas de actuaciones a emprender en materia de investigación y técnicas de restauración. A este le siguió en 1997 el Plan Especial de Protección y Reforma Interior del Enceinte Fortificado de la Villa de Lugo, que se ocupa principalmente del entorno urbano del casco histórico. Sin embargo, tiene un impacto directo en la protección de los muros, en términos de planificación del tráfico, creación de espacios abiertos y regulación de la altura de los edificios. Otro instrumento de planificación que afecta a las murallas es el Plan Especial de Protección del Miño, aprobado por el municipio a principios de 1998.

    En la actualidad no existe un plan de gestión sensu stricto para las murallas en funcionamiento en Lugo: se sigue trabajando sobre la base del plan de 1992. Tampoco existe una unidad técnica específicamente responsable de la conservación y restauración de los muros. Es en este contexto que se está considerando seriamente la creación de una fundación independiente, bajo el patrocinio real y con representantes de instituciones gubernamentales, académicas, voluntarias y empresariales, para colaborar con la Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural de Galicia. El plan de trabajo de este organismo incluiría el desarrollo e implementación de programas integrados de conservación, restauración y mantenimiento.

    El área de WH es administrada directamente por el Oficial Forestal Divisional del Departamento de Bosques. Un comité directivo nacional coordina las instituciones para Sinharaja como un Área Nacional Silvestre, Reserva de Biosfera (1988) y sitio de WH. Hay dos planes de manejo, preparados en 1985/86 y 1992/94, que enfatizan la conservación, la investigación científica, el manejo de la zona de amortiguamiento, la distribución de beneficios y la participación comunitaria.

    El "Muro de Adriano", que anteriormente estaba inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial, es parte de la propiedad transnacional "Fronteras del Imperio Romano".

    Ampliación de la "Reserva de Vida Silvestre de la Isla Gough".

    (renominación bajo criterios culturales)

    Ampliación de la propiedad "Glacier Bay / Wrangell / St Elias / Kluane".

    #: En cuanto a las 19 propiedades naturales y mixtas inscritas para valores geológicos antes de 1994, los criterios de numeración de esta propiedad han cambiado. Ver Decisión 30.COM 8D.1


    El tai chi se agrega a la lista del patrimonio cultural inmaterial de la Unesco, 12 años después de que China solicitó por primera vez el reconocimiento del antiguo arte marcial

    El tai chi, un arte marcial chino de siglos de antigüedad y una forma de ejercicio popular internacionalmente, se ha agregado a la lista del patrimonio cultural de la Unesco.

    Durante más de 10 años (su solicitud inicial fue rechazada en 2008) China ha estado tratando de tener tai chi, también conocido como taijiquan - reconocido oficialmente por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura en la Lista Representativa del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad.

    En ese momento, los jueces le dijeron a China que había solicitado demasiados listados de tai chi para ser considerado para un lugar. Se le dijo a China que redujera sus solicitudes de las 12 presentadas, que incluían tai chi, kung fu Shaolin, ópera de Pekín y acupuntura, informó Tencent News.

    Obtenga los últimos conocimientos y análisis de nuestro boletín de impacto global sobre las grandes historias que se originan en China.

    Taijiquan no es solo un deporte para hacer que la gente esté en forma, sino que también contiene la cultura y la filosofía chinas ”, dijo el investigador Yan Shuangjun a la Agencia de Noticias Xinhua. “La aplicación comenzó en 2008, y ahora logramos una victoria, lo que ayudará a que este deporte llegue a más lugares”.

    El tai chi tiene un seguimiento mundial masivo y devoto. Millones de ancianos chinos lo practican todos los días en los parques de la ciudad, y las celebridades y otras figuras públicas hacen regularmente referencias públicas a su práctica por los beneficios para la salud que se dice que proporciona.

    Según la Clínica Mayo en los Estados Unidos, hacer tai chi puede reducir el estrés, la ansiedad y la depresión, mejorar la capacidad aeróbica, la energía y la resistencia, mejorar el sistema inmunológico y aliviar el dolor articular.

    Gisele Bündchen, una de las modelos mejor pagadas del mundo, incorpora el tai chi a su vida diaria, al igual que su marido, Tom Brady. Otros que han expresado su opinión sobre su uso en sus vidas incluyen a los actores Terence Stamp y Paul Adrian, la estrella de Bollywood Kunal Kapoor y el músico RZA del Wu Tang Clan, por no hablar de su importancia para los artistas marciales como Jackie Chan, Bruce Lee y Jet Li.

    El arte marcial tradicional chino nació en el pueblo de Chenjiagou, en la provincia de Henan, en el centro de China, a mediados del siglo XVII. Ahora tiene más de 100 millones de practicantes en más de 150 países y regiones, informó Xinhua.

    Al otorgar una lista de patrimonio codiciado, una de las consideraciones más importantes de la Unesco es evaluar si el tema de una solicitud representa una "obra maestra del genio creativo humano". Otros factores incluyen exhibir un importante intercambio de valores humanos y “dar un testimonio único, o al menos excepcional, de una tradición cultural o de una civilización”.

    Tras las múltiples solicitudes de China en 2008, se cambiaron las reglas para limitar las solicitudes de estatus de patrimonio cultural a un máximo de dos por año. Al año siguiente, China solicitó la ópera de Pekín y la acupuntura. Después de eso, la Unesco anunció una nueva regla: cada país solo puede solicitar una lista de patrimonio a la vez.

    En 2011, China solicitó con éxito los títeres de sombras chinos, una forma de teatro que utiliza figuras de siluetas coloridas hechas de cuero. En 2013, la solicitud del país fue para chinos. zhusuan, o cálculo mental basado en el ábaco, que también se incluyó en la lista.

    En 2016, la provincia de Henan presentó una solicitud para agregar taijiquan para la lista de patrimonio una prioridad. Se especuló que Japón y Corea del Sur se estaban preparando para hacer aplicaciones similares.

    El pueblo de Chenjiagou tiene docenas de taijiquan escuelas y más de 800 maestrías vigentes. Maestros conocidos incluyen a Chen Changxing y Wu Yunang.

    Películas, como la exitosa de 1994 El niño Karate, han ayudado a lanzar la antigua práctica al escenario mundial. El niño Karate representa a un adolescente, interpretado por Ralph Macchio, que utiliza una mezcla de karate y otras artes marciales chinas como el tai chi, para enfrentarse a sus matones.

    En 2008, película de Hong Kong Hombre ip - una película biográfica de artes marciales basada en los acontecimientos de la vida del maestro de Wing Chun y maestro de Bruce Lee - recibió elogios generalizados de la crítica y el público. La última película de la serie, Ip Man 4: El final , salió en 2019.

    En China, el tai chi está ampliamente representado en películas y otros medios. En 1997, popular programa de televisión chino Maestro de Tai Chi retrató la historia de un joven que intenta aprender el arte de un verdadero maestro en un pueblo.

    Jack Ma, presidente de la empresa de comercio electrónico más grande de China, Alibaba Group, propietaria de Poste matutino del sur de China, hizo un cortometraje llamado Gong Shou Dao en 2018, en el que interpreta a un maestro de tai chi que es capaz de derrotar a una serie de enemigos.

    Taijiquan ahora tiene reconocimiento mundial por su valor para toda la humanidad.

    Más de South China Morning Post:

    Para conocer las últimas noticias del South China Morning Post, descargue nuestra aplicación móvil. Copyright 2020.


    Contenido

    Paleolítico (3,3 Ma

    Lo que ahora es China estaba habitado por Homo erectus hace más de un millón de años. [7] Un estudio reciente muestra que las herramientas de piedra encontradas en el sitio de Xiaochangliang están fechadas magnetoestratigráficamente hace 1,36 millones de años. [8] El sitio arqueológico de Xihoudu en la provincia de Shanxi tiene evidencia de uso de fuego por Homo erectus, [9] que data de hace 1,27 millones de años, [7] y Homo erectus Los fósiles en China incluyen el hombre de Yuanmou, el hombre de Lantian y el hombre de Pekín. Dientes fosilizados de Homo sapiens en la cueva de Fuyan en el condado de Dao en Hunan se han descubierto que datan de 125.000–80.000 a. C. [10] Se ha encontrado evidencia de la tecnología Levallois del Paleolítico Medio en el conjunto lítico del sitio de la Cueva Guanyindong en el suroeste de China, que data de hace aproximadamente 170.000 a 80.000 años. [11]

    Neolítico

    La edad neolítica en China se remonta aproximadamente al 10.000 a. C. [12] La evidencia más antigua de arroz cultivado, encontrada en el río Yangtze, data de hace 8.000 años. [13] Las primeras pruebas de la agricultura de mijo protochino están fechadas por radiocarbono alrededor del 7000 a. C. [14] La agricultura dio origen a la cultura Jiahu (7000 a 5800 aC). En Damaidi en Ningxia, se han descubierto 3.172 esculturas de acantilados que datan de 6000–5000 AC, "con 8.453 personajes individuales como el sol, la luna, las estrellas, dioses y escenas de caza o pastoreo". [ atribución necesaria ] Estas pictografías tienen fama de ser similares a los primeros caracteres que se confirmó que estaban escritos en chino. [15] La protoescritura china existió en Jiahu alrededor del 7000 aC, [16] Dadiwan del 5800 aC al 5400 aC, Damaidi alrededor del 6000 aC [17] y Banpo que data del quinto milenio aC. Algunos estudiosos han sugerido que los símbolos de Jiahu (séptimo milenio antes de Cristo) fueron el sistema de escritura chino más antiguo. [16] La excavación de un sitio de la cultura Peiligang en el condado de Xinzheng, Henan, encontró una comunidad que floreció entre el 5.500 y el 4.900 a. C., con evidencia de agricultura, edificios construidos, cerámica y entierro de los muertos. [18] Con la agricultura vino el aumento de la población, la capacidad de almacenar y redistribuir cultivos y el potencial de apoyar a los artesanos y administradores especializados. [13] A finales del Neolítico, el valle del río Amarillo comenzó a establecerse como un centro de la cultura Yangshao (5000 a. C. a 3000 a. C.), y se fundaron las primeras aldeas, la más significativa desde el punto de vista arqueológico se encontró en Banpo, Xi'an. . [19] Más tarde, la cultura Yangshao fue reemplazada por la cultura Longshan, que también se centró en el río Amarillo desde aproximadamente 3000 aC hasta 2000 aC.

    Edad de Bronce

    Se han encontrado artefactos de bronce en el sitio de la cultura Majiayao (entre 3100 y 2700 aC). [20] [21] La Edad del Bronce también está representada en el sitio de la cultura Baja Xiajiadian (2200-1600 aC [22]) en el noreste de China. Se cree que Sanxingdui, ubicada en lo que ahora es la provincia de Sichuan, es el sitio de una importante ciudad antigua, de una cultura de la Edad del Bronce previamente desconocida (entre 2000 y 1200 aC). El sitio fue descubierto por primera vez en 1929 y luego redescubierto en 1986. Los arqueólogos chinos han identificado la cultura Sanxingdui como parte del antiguo reino de Shu, vinculando los artefactos encontrados en el sitio con sus primeros reyes legendarios. [23] [24]

    La metalurgia ferrosa comienza a aparecer a finales del siglo VI en el valle del Yangzi. [25] Un tomahawk de bronce con una hoja de hierro meteórico excavado cerca de la ciudad de Gaocheng en Shijiazhuang (ahora provincia de Hebei) data del siglo XIV a. C. Por esta razón, autores como Liana Chua y Mark Elliott han utilizado el término "Edad de Hierro" por convención para el período de transición de c. 500 a. C. a 100 a. C., que corresponde aproximadamente al período de los Reinos Combatientes de la historiografía china. [26] Una cultura de la Edad del Hierro de la meseta tibetana se ha asociado tentativamente con la cultura Zhang Zhung descrita en los primeros escritos tibetanos.

    Dinastía Xia (2070-1600 a. C.)

    La dinastía Xia de China (desde c. 2070 hasta c. 1600 aC) es la primera dinastía descrita en registros históricos antiguos como el de Sima Qian Registros del gran historiador y Anales de bambú. [5] La dinastía fue considerada mítica por los historiadores hasta que las excavaciones científicas encontraron sitios de la Edad del Bronce en Erlitou, Henan en 1959. [27] Con pocos registros claros que coincidan con los huesos del oráculo Shang, no está claro si estos sitios son los restos de Xia dinastía o de otra cultura del mismo período. [28] Las excavaciones que se superponen al supuesto período de tiempo de los Xia indican un tipo de agrupaciones de jefaturas culturalmente similares. Se cree que las primeras marcas de este período encontradas en cerámica y conchas son ancestrales de los caracteres chinos modernos. [29]

    Según los registros antiguos, la dinastía terminó alrededor del 1600 aC como consecuencia de la Batalla de Mingtiao.

    Dinastía Shang (1600-1046 aC)

    Los hallazgos arqueológicos que proporcionan evidencia de la existencia de la dinastía Shang, c. 1600-1046 aC, se dividen en dos conjuntos. El primer conjunto, del período Shang anterior, proviene de fuentes en Erligang, Zhengzhou y Shangcheng. El segundo conjunto, del último período Shang o Yin (殷), está en Anyang, en la actual Henan, que ha sido confirmada como la última de las nueve capitales de Shang (c. 1300-1046 aC). [ cita necesaria ] Los hallazgos en Anyang incluyen el registro escrito más antiguo de los chinos descubierto hasta ahora: inscripciones de registros de adivinación en escritura china antigua en huesos o conchas de animales, los "huesos del oráculo", que datan de alrededor del 1250 a. C. [1]

    Una serie de treinta y un reyes reinó sobre la dinastía Shang. Durante su reinado, según el Registros del gran historiador, la ciudad capital se trasladó seis veces. [30] El movimiento final (y más importante) fue hacia Yin alrededor del 1300 a. C., lo que condujo a la edad de oro de la dinastía. [30] El término dinastía Yin ha sido sinónimo de dinastía Shang en la historia, aunque últimamente se ha utilizado para referirse específicamente a la segunda mitad de la dinastía Shang.

    Los historiadores chinos de períodos posteriores estaban acostumbrados a la noción de que una dinastía sucediera a otra, pero la situación política en la China temprana era mucho más complicada. Por lo tanto, como sugieren algunos estudiosos de China, Xia y Shang pueden referirse a entidades políticas que existían al mismo tiempo, al igual que los primeros Zhou existieron al mismo tiempo que los Shang. [31]

    Aunque los registros escritos encontrados en Anyang confirman la existencia de la dinastía Shang, [32] los eruditos occidentales a menudo dudan en asociar asentamientos contemporáneos con el asentamiento de Anyang con la dinastía Shang. Por ejemplo, los hallazgos arqueológicos en Sanxingdui sugieren una civilización tecnológicamente avanzada y culturalmente diferente a Anyang. La evidencia no es concluyente para probar qué tan lejos se extendía el reino Shang desde Anyang. La hipótesis principal es que Anyang, gobernado por el mismo Shang en la historia oficial, coexistió y comerciaba con muchos otros asentamientos culturalmente diversos en el área que ahora se conoce como China propiamente dicha. [33]

    Ding cuadrado de bronce (caldero) con rostros humanos.

    Hacha de batalla de bronce, dinastía Shang (1600-1046 aC). Excavado en Yidu, provincia de Shandong.

    Un recipiente de bronce de la dinastía Shang para conservar la bebida

    Dinastía Zhou (1046-256 a. C.)

    La dinastía Zhou (1046 a. C. hasta aproximadamente 256 a. C.) es la dinastía más duradera de la historia china. A fines del segundo milenio antes de Cristo, la dinastía Zhou comenzó a surgir en el valle del río Amarillo, invadiendo el territorio de los Shang. Los Zhou parecían haber comenzado su gobierno bajo un sistema semifeudal. Los Zhou vivían al oeste de Shang, y el líder Zhou fue designado Protector Occidental por Shang. El gobernante de Zhou, el rey Wu, con la ayuda de su hermano, el duque de Zhou, como regente, logró derrotar a los Shang en la batalla de Muye.

    El rey de Zhou en este momento invocó el concepto del Mandato del Cielo para legitimar su gobierno, un concepto que fue influyente para casi todas las dinastías sucesivas. [ cita necesaria ] Como Shangdi, Heaven (tian) gobernó sobre todos los demás dioses, y decidió quién gobernaría China. [34] Se creía que un gobernante perdió el Mandato del Cielo cuando ocurrieron desastres naturales en gran número, y cuando, de manera más realista, el soberano aparentemente había perdido su preocupación por la gente. En respuesta, la casa real sería derrocada y una nueva casa gobernaría, habiéndosele concedido el Mandato del Cielo.

    Los Zhou inicialmente trasladaron su capital al oeste a un área cerca de la moderna Xi'an, en el río Wei, un afluente del río Amarillo, pero presidirían una serie de expansiones en el valle del río Yangtze. Esta sería la primera de muchas migraciones de población de norte a sur en la historia de China.

    Período de primavera y otoño (722 - 476 aC)

    En el siglo VIII a.C., el poder se descentralizó durante el período de primavera y otoño, llamado así por el influyente Anales de primavera y otoño. En este período, los líderes militares locales utilizados por los Zhou comenzaron a afirmar su poder y competir por la hegemonía. La situación se vio agravada por la invasión de otros pueblos del noroeste, como los Qin, que obligaron a los Zhou a trasladar su capital al este, a Luoyang. Esto marca la segunda gran fase de la dinastía Zhou: el Zhou Oriental. El período de primavera y otoño está marcado por el desmoronamiento del poder central de Zhou. En cada uno de los cientos de estados que eventualmente surgieron, los hombres fuertes locales tenían la mayor parte del poder político y continuaron su subordinación a los reyes Zhou solo de nombre. Algunos líderes locales incluso comenzaron a usar títulos reales para sí mismos. China ahora constaba de cientos de estados, algunos de ellos tan grandes como una aldea con un fuerte.

    A medida que la era continuaba, los estados más grandes y poderosos se anexaron o reclamaron soberanía sobre los más pequeños. En el siglo VI a. C., la mayoría de los estados pequeños habían desaparecido al ser anexionados y solo unos pocos principados grandes y poderosos dominaban China. Algunos estados del sur, como Chu y Wu, reclamaron la independencia de los Zhou, quienes emprendieron guerras contra algunos de ellos (Wu y Yue). En este período se establecieron muchas ciudades nuevas y la cultura china se fue configurando lentamente.

    Una vez que todos estos poderosos gobernantes se establecieron firmemente dentro de sus respectivos dominios, el derramamiento de sangre se centró más plenamente en el conflicto interestatal en el período de los Reinos Combatientes, que comenzó cuando las tres familias de élite restantes en el estado de Jin (Zhao, Wei y Han) dividieron el estado. . Muchos personajes famosos como Laozi, Confucio y Sun Tzu vivieron durante este período caótico.

    Las Cien Escuelas de Pensamiento de la filosofía china florecieron durante este período, y se fundaron movimientos intelectuales tan influyentes como el confucianismo, el taoísmo, el legalismo y el mohismo, en parte como respuesta al mundo político cambiante. Los dos primeros pensamientos filosóficos tendrían una enorme influencia en la cultura china.

    Período de los Reinos Combatientes (476-221 a. C.)

    Después de una mayor consolidación política, siete estados prominentes permanecieron a fines del siglo V a. C., y los años en los que estos pocos estados lucharon entre sí se conocen como el período de los Estados en Guerra. Aunque permaneció un rey nominal de Zhou hasta el año 256 a. C., era en gran parte una figura decorativa y tenía poco poder real.

    Durante este período se realizaron numerosos desarrollos en cultura y matemáticas. Los ejemplos incluyen un importante logro literario, el Zuo zhuan en el Anales de primavera y otoño, que resume el período anterior de primavera y otoño, y el paquete de 21 tiras de bambú de la colección Tsinghua, que se inventó durante este período y que data del 305 a. C., son el ejemplo más antiguo del mundo de una tabla de multiplicar decimal de dos dígitos, lo que indica que los la aritmética ya estaba establecida durante este período. [35]

    A medida que se anexaron los territorios vecinos de estos estados en guerra, incluidas las áreas de las modernas Sichuan y Liaoning, se gobernaron bajo el nuevo sistema administrativo local de comandancia y prefectura. Este sistema ha estado en uso desde el período de primavera y otoño, y todavía se pueden ver partes en el sistema moderno de Sheng y Xian (provincia y condado).

    La expansión final en este período comenzó durante el reinado de Ying Zheng, el rey de Qin. Su unificación de las otras seis potencias y nuevas anexiones en las regiones modernas de Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong y Guangxi en el 214 a. C., le permitieron proclamarse a sí mismo Primer Emperador (Qin Shi Huang).

    El Período de la China Imperial se puede dividir en tres subperíodos: Temprano, Medio y Tardío.

    Los principales eventos en el subperíodo Temprano incluyen la unificación Qin de China y su reemplazo por Han, la Primera División seguida por la unificación Jin y la pérdida del norte de China. El subperíodo medio estuvo marcado por la unificación Sui y su suplementación por la Tang, la Segunda División y la unificación Song. El subperíodo tardío incluyó las dinastías Yuan, Ming y Qing.

    Dinastía Qin (221-206 a. C.)

    Los historiadores a menudo se refieren al período desde la dinastía Qin hasta el final de la dinastía Qing como China imperial. Aunque el reinado unificado del Primer Emperador Qin duró solo 12 años, logró someter gran parte de lo que constituye el núcleo de la patria china Han y unirlos bajo un gobierno legalista fuertemente centralizado asentado en Xianyang (cerca de la moderna Xi'an ). La doctrina del legalismo que guió a los Qin enfatizó la estricta adherencia a un código legal y el poder absoluto del emperador. Esta filosofía, aunque eficaz para expandir el imperio de manera militar, resultó inviable para gobernarlo en tiempos de paz. El emperador Qin presidió el brutal silenciamiento de la oposición política, incluido el evento conocido como la quema de libros y el entierro de eruditos. Este sería el ímpetu detrás de la síntesis Han posterior que incorpora las escuelas más moderadas de gobierno político.

    Las principales contribuciones de los Qin incluyen el concepto de un gobierno centralizado y la unificación y desarrollo del código legal, el lenguaje escrito, la medida y la moneda de China después de las tribulaciones de los períodos de primavera y otoño y los estados en guerra. Incluso algo tan básico como la longitud de los ejes de los carros, que deben coincidir con los surcos de las carreteras, tuvo que uniformarse para garantizar un sistema comercial viable en todo el imperio. También como parte de su centralización, Qin conectó los muros fronterizos del norte de los estados que derrotó, haciendo la primera, aunque tosca, versión de la Gran Muralla China.

    Las tribus del norte, llamadas colectivamente Wu Hu por los Qin, estuvieron libres del dominio chino durante la mayor parte de la dinastía. [36] Prohibido comerciar con los campesinos de la dinastía Qin, la tribu Xiongnu que vivía en la región de Ordos en el noroeste de China a menudo los atacaba, lo que llevó a los Qin a tomar represalias. After a military campaign led by General Meng Tian, the region was conquered in 215 BC and agriculture was established the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted. The succeeding Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Indeed, this was true of the dynasty's borders in multiple directions modern Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Manchuria, and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct. [37]

    After Emperor Qin Shi Huang's unnatural death due to the consumption of mercury pills, [38] the Qin government drastically deteriorated and eventually capitulated in 207 BC after the Qin capital was captured and sacked by rebels, which would ultimately lead to the establishment of a new dynasty of a unified China. [39] Despite the short 15-year duration of the Qin dynasty, it was immensely influential on China and the structure of future Chinese dynasties.

    Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220)

    Han occidental

    The Han dynasty was founded by Liu Bang, who emerged victorious in the Chu–Han Contention that followed the fall of the Qin dynasty. A golden age in Chinese history, the Han dynasty's long period of stability and prosperity consolidated the foundation of China as a unified state under a central imperial bureaucracy, which was to last intermittently for most of the next two millennia. During the Han dynasty, territory of China was extended to most of the China proper and to areas far west. Confucianism was officially elevated to orthodox status and was to shape the subsequent Chinese civilization. Art, culture and science all advanced to unprecedented heights. With the profound and lasting impacts of this period of Chinese history, the dynasty name "Han" had been taken as the name of the Chinese people, now the dominant ethnic group in modern China, and had been commonly used to refer to Chinese language and written characters. The Han dynasty also saw many mathematical innovations being invented such as the method of Gaussian elimination which appeared in the Chinese mathematical text Chapter Eight Rectangular Arrays de The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. Its use is illustrated in eighteen problems, with two to five equations. The first reference to the book by this title is dated to 179 AD, but parts of it were written as early as approximately 150 BC, more than 1500 years before a European came up with the method in the 18th century. [40]

    After the initial laissez-faire policies of Emperors Wen and Jing, the ambitious Emperor Wu brought the empire to its zenith. To consolidate his power, Confucianism, which emphasizes stability and order in a well-structured society, was given exclusive patronage to be the guiding philosophical thoughts and moral principles of the empire. Imperial Universities were established to support its study and further development, while other schools of thought were discouraged.

    Major military campaigns were launched to weaken the nomadic Xiongnu Empire, limiting their influence north of the Great Wall. Along with the diplomatic efforts led by Zhang Qian, the sphere of influence of the Han Empire extended to the states in the Tarim Basin, opened up the Silk Road that connected China to the west, stimulating bilateral trade and cultural exchange. To the south, various small kingdoms far beyond the Yangtze River Valley were formally incorporated into the empire.

    Emperor Wu also dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Baiyue tribes. The Han annexed Minyue in 135 BC and 111 BC, Nanyue in 111 BC, and Dian in 109 BC. [41] Migration and military expeditions led to the cultural assimilation of the south. [42] It also brought the Han into contact with kingdoms in Southeast Asia, introducing diplomacy and trade. [43]

    After Emperor Wu, the empire slipped into gradual stagnation and decline. Economically, the state treasury was strained by excessive campaigns and projects, while land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. Various consort clans exerted increasing control over strings of incompetent emperors and eventually the dynasty was briefly interrupted by the usurpation of Wang Mang.

    Xin dynasty

    In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang claimed that the Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the Han dynasty and the rise of his own, and he founded the short-lived Xin dynasty. Wang Mang started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms, including the outlawing of slavery and land nationalization and redistribution. These programs, however, were never supported by the landholding families, because they favored the peasants. The instability of power brought about chaos, uprisings, and loss of territories. This was compounded by mass flooding of the Yellow River silt buildup caused it to split into two channels and displaced large numbers of farmers. Wang Mang was eventually killed in Weiyang Palace by an enraged peasant mob in AD 23.

    Han oriental

    Emperor Guangwu reinstated the Han dynasty with the support of landholding and merchant families at Luoyang, este of the former capital Xi'an. Thus, this new era is termed the Eastern Han dynasty. With the capable administrations of Emperors Ming and Zhang, former glories of the dynasty was reclaimed, with brilliant military and cultural achievements. The Xiongnu Empire was decisively defeated. The diplomat and general Ban Chao further expanded the conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea, [44] thus reopening the Silk Road, and bringing trade, foreign cultures, along with the arrival of Buddhism. With extensive connections with the west, the first of several Roman embassies to China were recorded in Chinese sources, coming from the sea route in AD 166, and a second one in AD 284.

    The Eastern Han dynasty was one of the most prolific era of science and technology in ancient China, notably the historic invention of papermaking by Cai Lun, and the numerous scientific and mathematical contributions by the famous polymath Zhang Heng.

    Three Kingdoms (AD 220 – 280)

    By the 2nd century, the empire declined amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in AD 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the period of the Three Kingdoms, since greatly romanticized in works such as Romance de los Tres Reinos.

    After Cao Cao reunified the north in 208, his son proclaimed the Wei dynasty in 220. Soon, Wei's rivals Shu and Wu proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms period. This period was characterized by a gradual decentralization of the state that had existed during the Qin and Han dynasties, and an increase in the power of great families.

    In 266, the Jin dynasty overthrew the Wei and later unified the country in 280, but this union was short-lived.

    Jin dynasty (AD 266 – 420)

    The Jin dynasty was severely weakened by internecine fighting among imperial princes and lost control of northern China after non-Han Chinese settlers rebelled and captured Luoyang and Chang'an. In 317, a Jin prince in modern-day Nanjing became emperor and continued the dynasty, now known as the Eastern Jin, which held southern China for another century. Prior to this move, historians refer to the Jin dynasty as the Western Jin.

    Northern China fragmented into a series of independent kingdoms, most of which were founded by Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Di and Qiang rulers. These non-Han peoples were ancestors of the Turks, Mongols, and Tibetans. Many had, to some extent, been "sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Qiang and the Xiongnu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times. During the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms, warfare ravaged the north and prompted large-scale Han Chinese migration south to the Yangtze River Basin and Delta.

    Northern and Southern dynasties (AD 420 – 589)

    In the early 5th century, China entered a period known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, in which parallel regimes ruled the northern and southern halves of the country. In the south, the Eastern Jin gave way to the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and finally Chen. Each of these Southern dynasties were led by Han Chinese ruling families and used Jiankang (modern Nanjing) as the capital. They held off attacks from the north and preserved many aspects of Chinese civilization, while northern barbarian regimes began to sinify.

    In the north, the last of the Sixteen Kingdoms was extinguished in 439 by the Northern Wei, a kingdom founded by the Xianbei, a nomadic people who unified northern China. The Northern Wei eventually split into the Eastern and Western Wei, which then became the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou. These regimes were dominated by Xianbei or Han Chinese who had married into Xianbei families. During this period most Xianbei people adopted Han surnames, eventually leading to complete assimilation into the Han.

    Despite the division of the country, Buddhism spread throughout the land. In southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. By the end of the era, Buddhists and Taoists had become much more tolerant of each other.

    Sui dynasty (AD 581 – 618)

    The short-lived Sui dynasty was a pivotal period in Chinese history. Founded by Emperor Wen in 581 in succession of the Northern Zhou, the Sui went on to conquer the Southern Chen in 589 to reunify China, ending three centuries of political division. The Sui pioneered many new institutions, including the government system of Three Departments and Six Ministries, imperial examinations for selecting officials from commoners, while improved on the systems of fubing system of the army conscription and the Equal-field system of land distributions. These policies, which were adopted by later dynasties, brought enormous population growth, and amassed excessive wealth to the state. Standardized coinage were enforced throughout the unified empire. Buddhism took root as a prominent religion and was supported officially. Sui China was known for its numerous mega-construction projects. Intended for grains shipment and transporting troops, the Grand Canal was constructed, linking the capitals Daxing (Chang'an) and Luoyang to the wealthy southeast region, and in another route, to the northeast border. The Great Wall was also expanded, while series of military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers further pacified its borders. However, the massive invasions of the Korean Peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War failed disastrously, triggering widespread revolts that led to the fall of the dynasty.

    Tang dynasty (AD 618 – 907)

    The Tang dynasty was a golden age of Chinese civilization, a prosperous, stable, and creative period with significant developments in culture, art, literature, particularly poetry, and technology. Buddhism became the predominant religion for the common people. Chang'an (modern Xi'an), the national capital, was the largest city in the world during its time. [45]

    The first emperor, Emperor Gaozu, came to the throne on 18 June 618, placed there by his son, Li Shimin, who became the second emperor, Taizong, one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history. Combined military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers reduced threats from Central Asian tribes, extended the border, and brought neighboring states into a tributary system. Military victories in the Tarim Basin kept the Silk Road open, connecting Chang'an to Central Asia and areas far to the west. In the south, lucrative maritime trade routes from port cities such as Guangzhou connected with distant countries, and foreign merchants settled in China, encouraging a cosmopolitan culture. The Tang culture and social systems were observed and adapted by neighboring countries, most notably, Japan. Internally the Grand Canal linked the political heartland in Chang'an to the agricultural and economic centers in the eastern and southern parts of the empire. Xuanzang, a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India on his own, and returned with, "over six hundred Mahayana and Hinayana texts, seven statues of the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics."

    The prosperity of the early Tang dynasty was abetted by a centralized bureaucracy. The government was organized as "Three Departments and Six Ministries" to separately draft, review, and implement policies. These departments were run by royal family members and landed aristocrats, but as the dynasty wore on, were joined or replaced by scholar officials selected by imperial examinations, setting patterns for later dynasties.

    Under the Tang "equal-field system" all land was owned by the Emperor and granted to each family according to household size. Men granted land were conscripted for military service for a fixed period each year, a military policy known as the "Fubing system". These policies stimulated a rapid growth in productivity and a significant army without much burden on the state treasury. By the dynasty's midpoint, however, standing armies had replaced conscription, and land was continuously falling into the hands of private owners and religious institutions granted exemptions.

    The dynasty continued to flourish under the rule of Empress Wu Zetian, the only empress regnant in Chinese history, and reached its zenith during the long reign of Emperor Xuanzong, who oversaw an empire that stretched from the Pacific to the Aral Sea with at least 50 million people. There were vibrant artistic and cultural creations, including works of the greatest Chinese poets, Li Bai, and Du Fu.

    At the zenith of prosperity of the empire, the An Lushan Rebellion from 755 to 763 was a watershed event. War, disease, and economic disruption devastated the population and drastically weakened the central imperial government. Upon suppression of the rebellion, regional military governors, known as Jiedushi, gained increasingly autonomous status. With loss of revenue from land tax, the central imperial government came to rely heavily on salt monopoly. Externally, former submissive states raided the empire and the vast border territories were lost for centuries. Nevertheless, civil society recovered and thrived amidst the weakened imperial bureaucracy.

    In late Tang period, the empire was worn out by recurring revolts of regional warlords, while internally, as scholar-officials engaged in fierce factional strife, corrupted eunuchs amassed immense power. Catastrophically, the Huang Chao Rebellion, from 874 to 884, devastated the entire empire for a decade. The sack of the southern port Guangzhou in 879 was followed by the massacre of most of its inhabitants, especially the large foreign merchant enclaves. [48] [49] By 881, both capitals, Luoyang and Chang'an, fell successively. The reliance on ethnic Han and Turkic warlords in suppressing the rebellion increased their power and influence. Consequently, the fall of the dynasty following Zhu Wen's usurpation led to an era of division.

    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907 – 960)

    The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, lasted from 907 to 960. During this half-century, China was in all respects a multi-state system. Five regimes, namely, (Later) Liang, Tang, Jin, Han and Zhou, rapidly succeeded one another in control of the traditional Imperial heartland in northern China. Among the regimes, rulers of (Later) Tang, Jin and Han were sinicized Shatuo Turks, which ruled over the ethnic majority of Han Chinese. More stable and smaller regimes of mostly ethnic Han rulers coexisted in south and western China over the period, cumulatively constituted the "Ten Kingdoms".

    Amidst political chaos in the north, the strategic Sixteen Prefectures (region along today's Great Wall) were ceded to the emerging Khitan Liao dynasty, which drastically weakened the defense of the China proper against northern nomadic empires. To the south, Vietnam gained lasting independence after being a Chinese prefecture for many centuries. With wars dominated in Northern China, there were mass southward migrations of population, which further enhanced the southward shift of cultural and economic centers in China. The era ended with the coup of Later Zhou general Zhao Kuangyin, and the establishment of the Song dynasty in 960, which eventually annihilated the remains of the "Ten Kingdoms" and reunified China.

    Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia dynasties (AD 960 – 1279)

    In 960, the Song dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu, with its capital established in Kaifeng (also known as Bianjing). In 979, the Song dynasty reunified most of the China proper, while large swaths of the outer territories were occupied by sinicized nomadic empires. The Khitan Liao dynasty, which lasted from 907 to 1125, ruled over Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of Northern China. Meanwhile, in what are now the north-western Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, the Tangut tribes founded the Western Xia dynasty from 1032 to 1227.

    Aiming to recover the strategic Sixteen Prefectures lost in the previous dynasty, campaigns were launched against the Liao dynasty in the early Song period, which all ended in failure. Then in 1004, the Liao cavalry swept over the exposed North China Plain and reached the outskirts of Kaifeng, forcing the Song's submission and then agreement to the Chanyuan Treaty, which imposed heavy annual tributes from the Song treasury. The treaty was a significant reversal of Chinese dominance of the traditional tributary system. Yet the annual outflow of Song's silver to the Liao was paid back through the purchase of Chinese goods and products, which expanded the Song economy, and replenished its treasury. This dampened the incentive for the Song to further campaign against the Liao. Meanwhile, this cross-border trade and contact induced further sinicization within the Liao Empire, at the expense of its military might which was derived from its primitive nomadic lifestyle. Similar treaties and social-economical consequences occurred in Song's relations with the Jin dynasty.

    Within the Liao Empire, the Jurchen tribes revolted against their overlords to establish the Jin dynasty in 1115. In 1125, the devastating Jin cataphract annihilated the Liao dynasty, while remnants of Liao court members fled to Central Asia to found the Qara Khitai Empire (Western Liao dynasty). Jin's invasion of the Song dynasty followed swiftly. In 1127, Kaifeng was sacked, a massive catastrophe known as the Jingkang Incident, ending the Northern Song dynasty. Later the entire north of China was conquered. The survived members of Song court regrouped in the new capital city of Hangzhou, and initiated the Southern Song dynasty, which ruled territories south of the Huai River. In the ensuing years, the territory and population of China were divided between the Song dynasty, the Jin dynasty and the Western Xia dynasty. The era ended with the Mongol conquest, as Western Xia fell in 1227, the Jin dynasty in 1234, and finally the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.

    Despite its military weakness, the Song dynasty is widely considered to be the high point of classical Chinese civilization. The Song economy, facilitated by technology advancement, had reached a level of sophistication probably unseen in world history before its time. The population soared to over 100 million and the living standards of common people improved tremendously due to improvements in rice cultivation and the wide availability of coal for production. The capital cities of Kaifeng and subsequently Hangzhou were both the most populous cities in the world for their time, and encouraged vibrant civil societies unmatched by previous Chinese dynasties. Although land trading routes to the far west were blocked by nomadic empires, there were extensive maritime trade with neighboring states, which facilitated the use of Song coinage as the de facto currency of exchange. Giant wooden vessels equipped with compasses traveled throughout the China Seas and northern Indian Ocean. The concept of insurance was practised by merchants to hedge the risks of such long-haul maritime shipments. With prosperous economic activities, the historically first use of paper currency emerged in the western city of Chengdu, as a supplement to the existing copper coins.

    The Song dynasty was considered to be the golden age of great advancements in science and technology of China, thanks to innovative scholar-officials such as Su Song (1020–1101) and Shen Kuo (1031–1095). Inventions such as the hydro-mechanical astronomical clock, the first continuous and endless power-transmitting chain, woodblock printing and paper money were all invented during the Song dynasty.

    There was court intrigue between the political reformers and conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively. By the mid-to-late 13th century, the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi. Enormous literary works were compiled during the Song dynasty, such as the historical work, the Zizhi Tongjian ("Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government"). The invention of movable-type printing further facilitated the spread of knowledge. Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During the Qingming Festival y Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, along with great Buddhist painters such as the prolific Lin Tinggui.

    The Song dynasty was also a period of major innovation in the history of warfare. Gunpowder, while invented in the Tang dynasty, was first put into use in battlefields by the Song army, inspiring a succession of new firearms and siege engines designs. During the Southern Song dynasty, as its survival hinged decisively on guarding the Yangtze and Huai River against the cavalry forces from the north, the first standing navy in China was assembled in 1132, with its admiral's headquarters established at Dinghai. Paddle-wheel warships equipped with trebuchets could launch incendiary bombs made of gunpowder and lime, as recorded in Song's victory over the invading Jin forces at the Battle of Tangdao in the East China Sea, and the Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161.

    The advances in civilization during the Song dynasty came to an abrupt end following the devastating Mongol conquest, during which the population sharply dwindled, with a marked contraction in economy. Despite viciously halting Mongol advance for more than three decades, the Southern Song capital Hangzhou fell in 1276, followed by the final annihilation of the Song standing navy at the Battle of Yamen in 1279.

    Yuan dynasty (AD 1271 – 1368)

    The Yuan dynasty was formally proclaimed in 1271, when the Great Khan of Mongol, Kublai Khan, one of the grandsons of Genghis Khan, assumed the additional title of Emperor of China, and considered his inherited part of the Mongol Empire as a Chinese dynasty. In the preceding decades, the Mongols had conquered the Jin dynasty in Northern China, and the Southern Song dynasty fell in 1279 after a protracted and bloody war. The Mongol Yuan dynasty became the first conquest dynasty in Chinese history to rule the entire China proper and its population as an ethnic minority. The dynasty also directly controlled the Mongolian heartland and other regions, inheriting the largest share of territory of the divided Mongol Empire, which roughly coincided with the modern area of China and nearby regions in East Asia. Further expansion of the empire was halted after defeats in the invasions of Japan and Vietnam. Following the previous Jin dynasty, the capital of Yuan dynasty was established at Khanbaliq (also known as Dadu, modern-day Beijing). The Grand Canal was reconstructed to connect the remote capital city to economic hubs in southern part of China, setting the precedence and foundation where Beijing would largely remain as the capital of the successive regimes that unified China mainland.

    After the peace treaty in 1304 that ended a series of Mongol civil wars, the emperors of the Yuan dynasty were upheld as the nominal Great Khan (Khagan) of the greater Mongol Empire over other Mongol Khanates, which nonetheless remained de facto autonomous. The era was known as Pax Mongolica, when much of the Asian continent was ruled by the Mongols. For the first and only time in history, the silk road was controlled entirely by a single state, facilitating the flow of people, trade, and cultural exchange. Network of roads and a postal system were established to connect the vast empire. Lucrative maritime trade, developed from the previous Song dynasty, continued to flourish, with Quanzhou and Hangzhou emerging as the largest ports in the world. Adventurous travelers from the far west, most notably the Venetian, Marco Polo, would have settled in China for decades. Upon his return, his detail travel record inspired generations of medieval Europeans with the splendors of the far East. The Yuan dynasty was the first ancient economy, where paper currency, known at the time as Jiaochao, was used as the predominant medium of exchange. Its unrestricted issuance in the late Yuan dynasty inflicted hyperinflation, which eventually brought the downfall of the dynasty.

    While the Mongol rulers of the Yuan dynasty adopted substantially to Chinese culture, their sinicization was of lesser extent compared to earlier conquest dynasties in Chinese history. For preserving racial superiority as the conqueror and ruling class, traditional nomadic customs and heritage from the Mongolian steppe were held in high regard. On the other hand, the Mongol rulers also adopted flexibly to a variety of cultures from many advanced civilizations within the vast empire. Traditional social structure and culture in China underwent immense transform during the Mongol dominance. Large group of foreign migrants settled in China, who enjoyed elevated social status over the majority Han Chinese, while enriching Chinese culture with foreign elements. The class of scholar officials and intellectuals, traditional bearers of elite Chinese culture, lost substantial social status. This stimulated the development of culture of the common folks. There were prolific works in zaju variety shows and literary songs (sanqu), which were written in a distinctive poetry style known as qu. Novels of vernacular style gained unprecedented status and popularity.

    Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reported approximately 120 million inhabitants after the conquest had been completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. [50] This major decline is not necessarily due only to Mongol killings. Scholars such as Frederick W. Mote argue that the wide drop in numbers reflects an administrative failure to record rather than an actual decrease others such as Timothy Brook argue that the Mongols created a system of enserfment among a huge portion of the Chinese populace, causing many to disappear from the census altogether other historians including William McNeill and David Morgan consider that plague was the main factor behind the demographic decline during this period. In the 14th century China suffered additional depredations from epidemics of plague, estimated to have killed 25 million people, 30% of the population of China. [51]

    Throughout the Yuan dynasty, there was some general sentiment among the populace against the Mongol dominance. Yet rather than the nationalist cause, it was mainly strings of natural disasters and incompetent governance that triggered widespread peasant uprisings since the 1340s. After the massive naval engagement at Lake Poyang, Zhu Yuanzhang prevailed over other rebel forces in the south. He proclaimed himself emperor and founded the Ming dynasty in 1368. The same year his northern expedition army captured the capital Khanbaliq. The Yuan remnants fled back to Mongolia and sustained the regime. Other Mongol Khanates in Central Asia continued to exist after the fall of Yuan dynasty in China.

    Ming dynasty (AD 1368 – 1644)

    The Ming dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368, who proclaimed himself as the Hongwu Emperor. The capital was initially set at Nanjing, and was later moved to Beijing from Yongle Emperor's reign onward.

    Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry. In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods. For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country. Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.

    Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming dynasty was not isolated. Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan, increased considerably. Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He.

    The Hongwu Emperor, being the only founder of a Chinese dynasty who was also of peasant origin, had laid the foundation of a state that relied fundamentally in agriculture. Commerce and trade, which flourished in the previous Song and Yuan dynasties, were less emphasized. Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers. Land estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out. Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of the Yongle Emperor, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes. Towards later era of the Ming dynasty, with declining government control, commerce, trade and private industries revived.

    The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Hongwu Emperor necessarily continued to use what he called the "Grand Secretariat" to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.

    The Yongle Emperor strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops was created. The Chinese armies conquered and occupied Vietnam for around 20 years, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in eastern Moghulistan. Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded and became a stimulus to domestic trade. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced. Many books were printed using movable type. The imperial palace in Beijing's Forbidden City reached its current splendor. It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited. New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished.

    In 1449 Esen Tayisi led an Oirat Mongol invasion of northern China which culminated in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu. Since then, the Ming became on the defensive on the northern frontier, which led to the Ming Great Wall being built. Most of what remains of the Great Wall of China today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watchtowers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.


    The History of Computer and It’s Revolutionary Aspects

    The computer is any sequence of devices that can be instructed to automatically perform calculation and intelligent work. The computers’ capacity allows the computer work on the general series of operations which can be treated as doing a wide range of tasks.

    This computer is widely used in the modern society to control system for different industrial and consumer devices. Which can be involved with various equipment such as ovens, controllers and cell phones. Since ancient times, the early man-made tools are also used to calculate things. In the early days of the Industrial Revolution, many machines were built to account tasks, such as loom guidance.

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the English writer Richard Braithwaite first used the term “computer” in a book titled “Brave Quest,” in 1613: “I like to read The Times’s most real computer, who shortened your day to a short paragraph.” The term “usage” refers to the person who makes calculations or calculations. Until the middle of the 20th century, the word “computer” still did not change any meaning than before. Then, starting from the late 19th century, “computer” becomes a different understanding as “a calculating machine”. (Dictionary, 2017)

    After this, the computer started to bring people an image as “computing”. The use of this term refers to “computer” has begun in 1897.

    20th-century equipment has been used to help thousands of years of computing, mainly with the finger one by one. The earliest counting device may be a tally bar. Later in the Fertile Crescent, the recording aids included stones that represented the number of items that could be herds or cereals sealed in hollow uncentered clay containers. The use of counting sticks is an example. Chinese Abacus (The abacus number 6,302,715,408) was originally used for business calculation. As early as 2400 BC, Roman abacus was developed from the equipment used in Babylon. (Eleanor, 2008)

    Charles Babbage, the Father of Computers, has conceptualized the first machine computer in early 19 th century. Moving after this, In the 20 th century, most computers need to be increased with direct mechanical models as the base of calculations. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005) After this, in 1938, the U.S. Navy had improved a sufficiently small electromechanical simulation computer that could be used on submarines. Similar equipment was developed in other countries during World War II. Now, in the recent society, the main principle of the modern computer was proposed in 1936, which called “Calculable Numbers.” Turing proposed a simple device, which was called as “general purpose computer,” now people called the “Universal Turing Machine”. The machine computers can calculate everything that can be calculated by executing instructions stored on tape.

    Since the 1950s, computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations. For example, the US military’s SAGE system as a system, which has involved with special-purpose commercial systems such as Saber. In 1970, engineers began to use mobile technology to connect distinct computers together. Technology now makes Arpanet possible to spread and evolve. Over time, the Internet had been commonly used in the different area, which was known as the normal Internet. The advent of the network involves redefining the nature and boundaries of the computer. (Internet Society, 2012)

    There are many promising modern technologies, such as computers, digital devices and science computers, which make people get active research. Most computers are versatile and can calculate any computable function and are limited only by their memory capacity and speed of operation.

    On the other hand, scientists still discovered other areas of the computer using:

    • Quantum Computer and Chemical Computer
    • Scalar processor and vector processor
    • Non-Consistent Memory Access (NUMA) computers
    • Register machines and stack machines
    • Harvard architecture and von Neumann architecture

    Furthermore, the other significant part of computer creating is the artificial intelligence. In order to use computers to solve more problems, scientists assumed that the computer can solve the problem programmatically, without regard to the efficiency of the code, substantive solutions, possible shortcuts or possible errors. The learning and adaptation programs are also a part of the new works of intelligence and standard working process. For separating different Products by using AI generally in two broad categories: rule-based systems and pattern recognition systems. Examples of pattern-based systems include speech recognition, font recognition, translation, and emerging online marketing.


    History and terminology

    "As cultures encompass lifestyles, different ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs, the protection and promotion of their rich diversity invite us to rise to new challenges at the local, national and international levels. This will involve integrating the principles of dialogue and mutual knowledge in all policies, particularly education, science, culture and communication policies, in the hope of correcting flawed cultural representations, values and stereotypes." 2010 United Nations International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures

    In recent years UNESCO played a leading role in the development and promotion of a powerful normative action related to the protection of cultural and natural heritage in all its forms.

    A corpus of standard-setting documents, including charters and recommendations, exists on the subject of monuments and sites. A number of research studies and analyses of religious heritage and sacred sites were carried out by the Advisory Bodies - ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN. There were a number of conclusions and recommendations drawn from previous meetings and activities on religious and sacred heritage, such as the ICCROM 2003 Forum on the conservation of Living Religious Heritage, the 2005 ICOMOS General Assembly resolution calling for the "establishment of an International Thematic Programme for Religious Heritage", and 2011 ICOMOS General Assembly Resolution on Protection and enhancement of sacred heritage sites, buildings and landscapes, as well as the UNESCO MAB/IUCN Guidelines for the Conservation and Management of Sacred Natural Sites.

    Several recommendations directly or indirectly concern the safeguarding of the spirit of place, namely their living, social and spiritual nature, in particular the Nara Document on Authenticity adopted at the Nara Conference on Authenticity in relation to the World Heritage Convention held in 1994 and the Quebec Declaration on the Preservation of the Spirit of Place, adopted at the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS in 2008.

    The term "Religious property", as used in the ICOMOS study "Filling the Gaps - an Action Plan for the Future", defines "any form of property with religious or spiritual associations: churches, monasteries, shrines, sanctuaries, mosques, synagogues, temples, sacred landscapes, sacred groves, and other landscape features, etc.".

    The term "Sacred site" embraces areas of special spiritual significance to peoples and communities and the term of "Sacred natural site" corresponds to the areas of land or water having special spiritual significance to peoples and communities," as proposed by the UNESCO/IUCN Guidelines for the Conservation and Management of Sacred Natural Sites, 2008

    According to ICCROM, living religious heritage has characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of heritage. Sacred sites, which, according to the UNESCO MAB Programme, "are indeed the oldest protected areas of the planet", and "have a vital importance for safeguarding cultural and biological diversity for present and future generations." Collectively, the religious and sacred properties capture a range of cultural and natural diversity, and each can singularly demonstrate the spirit of a particular place.


    Ancient Chinese abacus receives UNESCO recognition - History

    The Zhusuan, otherwise known as the Chinese abacus was officially listed as an intangible cultural heritage at the 8th Annual UNESCO World Heritage Congress on December 4th in Baku, Azerbaijan.

    The abacus is an ancient calculating method with a history of over 2,500 years. It is regarded as the fifth invention in Chinese history and was listed as a national-level intangible cultural heritage in 2008.

    The abacus’s popularity has been compromised over the course of time by the emergence of digital calculators however, they are still in use in many of China’s rural marketplaces. Today, the abacus has a richer value as a cultural symbol rather than a practical calculating tool.

    The UNESCO stated that intangible cultural heritage could bring a sense of identification to the people who own it and it is essential to maintaining cultural diversity and human creativity.

    Since 2001, China has successfully applied for 37 items to be listed as World Intangible Cultural Heritages, including Kunqu opera, the shadow play and acupuncture.

    China now has the most intangible cultural heritage items listed by UNESCO.

    Facts about the abacus:

    The Chinese abacus, also called suanpan, can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC).

    It has two decks and more than seven rods. The upper deck, which is known as heaven, has two beads on each rod. These beads each have the value of five. There are five beads on the bottom deck, known as earth. Each of these has the value of one. The beads are moved up and down during calculation.


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