Robert Henri

Robert Henri

Robert Henri nació en Cincinnati, Ohio en 1865. Estudió arte en la Academia de Pensilvania y en la Ecole des Beaux Arts de París. Después de regresar a Filadelfia en 1891, enseñó en la Women's School of Design.

Un gran admirador de la obra de Thomas Eakins, Henri fue un defensor del realismo en el arte. Más tarde recordó: "Thomas Eakins era un hombre de gran carácter. Era un hombre de voluntad férrea y su voluntad de pintar y llevar su vida como pensaba que debía ser. Esto lo hizo. Le costó mucho, pero en su obras tenemos el resultado precioso de su independencia, su corazón generoso y su gran mente. Eakins fue un profundo estudioso de la vida, y con un gran amor estudió la humanidad con franqueza. No temió lo que su estudio le reveló. cuestión de formas y medios de expresión, la ciencia de la técnica, la estudió más profundamente, como sólo un gran maestro tendría la voluntad de estudiar. Su visión no fue tocada por la moda. Luchó por aprehender la fuerza constructiva en la naturaleza y emplear en sus obras se encuentran los principios. Su cualidad era la honestidad. Integridad es la palabra que mejor encaja con él. Personalmente, lo considero el más grande retratista que ha producido América ".

Finalmente, Henri se convirtió en el líder de un movimiento que Art Young describió como la Escuela Ash Can. Henri enseñó a sus alumnos que el trabajo del artista debería ser "una fuerza social que crea un revuelo en el mundo". Henri también instó a los artistas a utilizar la "rica materia proporcionada por la vida urbana moderna". Los artistas influenciados por las ideas de Henri incluyeron a John Sloan, George Bellows, George Luks, Denys Wortman, Rockwell Kent y Edward Hopper.

En 1898, Henri comenzó a enseñar en la Escuela de Arte de Nueva York. Después de una exposición en 1904, un crítico de arte señaló: "El Sr. Henri siempre ha mostrado un deseo de pintar la verdad. Es probable que la calidad de un retratista reaccione a su desventaja. Cuando la gente de la sociedad conserva sus rostros y figuras en el lienzo, tienes un fuerte deseo de Parece bonito, y un hombre que sólo busca perpetuar la verdad probablemente perderá el favor de los adinerados ".

Uno de sus alumnos, Stuart Davis, explicó más tarde: "Él (Henri) hablaba de las pinturas que traíamos durante tres o cuatro horas, y en el proceso de hablar de esas imágenes, las criticaba, no desde el punto de vista de algunos pre -Norma de excelencia establecida, pero en relación con sus propias ideas. Hablaba de sus propios intereses mientras hablaba de la pintura y en el camino, ya que tenía más experiencia, más experiencia con la cultura en general que con el equipo. de los jóvenes que estaban allí, sus discusiones fueron asuntos muy educativos ".

Cuando la Academia Nacional en 1907 no reconoció la importancia de Henri y sus seguidores, montó su propia exposición bajo el título, El ocho. Henri argumentó: "Los partidos revolucionarios que rompen con las viejas instituciones, con las organizaciones muertas, siempre están encabezados por hombres con una visión de orden, con hombres que se dan cuenta de que debe haber un equilibrio en la vida, tanto de lo que es bueno para cada hombre". , tanto para probar los tendones de su alma, tanto para estimular su alegría ".

El trabajo de Ash Can School se hizo más conocido después de 1911 cuando John Sloan se convirtió en editor de arte de la revista radical, Las masas. Aunque rara vez se les pagaba, Sloan pudo utilizar el trabajo de Henri y los artistas en los que había influido, como Stuart Davis, George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, Boardman Robinson, Robert Minor, K. R. Chamberlain y Maurice Becker.

En 1913, las ideas de Henri inspiraron la Exposición Internacional de Arte Moderno (Armory Show) celebrada en la ciudad de Nueva York. Celebrada en la 69th Regiment Armory, la exposición incluyó más de 1300 obras, incluidas 430 de Europa. La exposición, celebrada entre el 17 de febrero y el 15 de marzo, recibió alrededor de 250.000 visitantes.

Después de dejar la Escuela de Arte de Nueva York, Henri enseñó en el Ferrer Center (1911-18) y en la Arts Students League (1915-28). El libro de Henri, El espíritu del arte, publicado en 1923, tuvo una tremenda influencia en los artistas jóvenes de América y Europa.

Robert Henri murió en 1929.

Sr. Cuando la gente de la sociedad tiene sus rostros y figuras preservadas en el lienzo, tienen un fuerte deseo de "verse bonitas", y un hombre que solo busca perpetuar la verdad probablemente perderá el favor de los adinerados.

Hablaba de los cuadros que traíamos durante tres o cuatro horas, y en el proceso de hablar de esos cuadros los criticaba no desde el punto de vista de alguna norma de excelencia preestablecida, sino en relación con sus propias ideas. Hablaba de sus propios intereses mientras hablaba de la pintura y de paso, como tenía más experiencia, más experiencia con la cultura en general que el grupo de jóvenes que estaban allí, sus discusiones eran asuntos muy educativos.

Thomas Eakins fue un hombre de gran carácter. No temía lo que le revelaba su estudio.

En materia de formas y medios de expresión, la ciencia de la técnica, la estudió más profundamente, como sólo un gran maestro tendría la voluntad de estudiar. "Integridad" es la palabra que mejor encaja con él. Personalmente, lo considero el mejor retratista que ha producido Estados Unidos.

Es el desorden en la mente del hombre el que produce el caos del tipo que provoca una guerra como la que nos abruma hoy. es la incapacidad de ver las diversas fases de la vida en su relación última lo que produce el militarismo, la esclavitud, el anhelo de una nación de conquistar a otra, la voluntad de destruir con propósitos egoístas e inhumanos.

Los partidos revolucionarios que rompen con las viejas instituciones, con las organizaciones muertas siempre están encabezados por hombres con visión de orden, con hombres que se dan cuenta de que debe haber equilibrio en la vida, tanto de lo que es bueno para cada hombre, tanto de prueba los tendones de su alma, tanto para estimular su alegría.


Nieve en Nueva York

La imagen enérgica pero cruda de Robert Henri de Nueva York en la nieve se desvía de las escenas nevadas urbanas impresionistas de la época de varias maneras: representa una calle lateral común en lugar de una avenida principal; no hay nada narrativo, anecdótico o embellecido en la imagen. , la composición en perspectiva de un punto carece de detalles triviales, la pincelada excepcionalmente atrevida y texturizada se asemeja a un estudio preparatorio más que a una pintura al óleo terminada y la paleta sombría crea una atmósfera oscura y opresiva. En su Libro de registro, Henri describió a Snow en Nueva York como, “N.Y. por E. en 55th St. desde 6 Ave. Casas marrones en 5 Ave. efecto de tormenta. nieve. vagón a la derecha ".

Después de haber regresado a la ciudad de Nueva York en 1900 después de una estadía prolongada en París, Henri finalmente estableció un estudio y una vivienda en el edificio Sherwood en la esquina de West 57th Street y Sixth Avenue. En marzo de 1902, el marchante William Macbeth lo animó a pintar paisajes urbanos de Nueva York para incluirlos en una exposición individual programada para el mes siguiente. Henri esperaba producir un cuadro para la ocasión que lograra un grado de aclamación crítica comparable al de La Neige (1899, Louvre, París), una vista nevada de la rue de S & # 232vres en París que había sido comprada para el Mus & # 233e du Luxembourg en 1899. Si bien se encontró un comprador para Snow en Nueva York, solo se vendió una obra más, lo que llevó a Henri a centrar su atención principalmente en el retrato.


El rincón del docente | ¡Maestro Robert Henri, líder de los “Ocho”, artista rebelde!

"Stella" pintado por Robert Henri en 1907 y aunque no se exhibió en la famosa exposición de 1908 llamada "Ocho" en la Macbeth Gallery de Nueva York, es conocido como uno de los mejores retratos de Henri y un punto culminante de la Colección Alexander. En 1907, Henri se acercaba a los 42 años y estaba en el apogeo de su carrera como artista, sin mencionar sus éxitos como maestro inspirador y líder para muchos estudiantes.

Robert Henri (1865-1926) no siempre fue llamado por ese nombre. Su nombre de nacimiento era Robert Henry Cozad. Algo de misterio rodea sus comienzos con sus padres antes de mudarse de Nebraska, parece que alguna disputa sobre los derechos de agua o la propiedad de la tierra enfureció al padre de Robert y le disparó fatalmente al hombre. Entonces, en medio de la noche, un Robert de 8 años estaba en movimiento con su hermano y sus padres, quienes inmediatamente cambiaron todos sus apellidos.

De Nueva York a Atlantic City, y en 1886, ahora con 21 años, Robert se inscribió en la Academia de Arte de Pensilvania. Robert hizo dos viajes a París cuando era joven, el primero en 1888 para estudiar impresionismo francés, y 3 años más tarde (después de algunos años de enseñanza en Pensilvania) durante la década de 1890, lo que provocó un cambio en su estilo a una paleta más oscura. Sus primeras influencias fueron Goya, Velázquez y Frans Hals.

Las contribuciones de Robert Henri al arte estadounidense realmente comienzan con su carrera como maestro. En 1892 Henri enseñó en la Escuela de Diseño para Mujeres de Filadelfia (ahora Moore College of Art). En 1893 en Darby Creek, Pensilvania, y fue durante un programa de verano, asistieron John Sloan, George Luks, Everett Shinn y William Glackens (iban a formar el grupo principal de la exposición Ocho en 1908). Se matricularon de nuevo cuando enseñó en la Academia de Filadelfia.

Henri fue un maestro carismático que realmente inspiró a sus alumnos. Mientras enseñaba en la Escuela de Arte de Nueva York, su popularidad como maestro eclipsó a la de su co-maestro, William Merritt Chase, quien no pudo competir, por lo que renunció y dejó a Henri para dirigir la escuela. Entre sus estudiantes se encontraban George Bellows, Stuart Davis, Edward Hopper y Rockwell Kent. De 1911 a 1918, Henri enseñó en la Ferrer Center School también en Nueva York, donde Man Ray estaba entre sus alumnos.

Las ideas de Robert sobre el arte fueron recopiladas por la exalumna Margery Ryerson en el libro "The Art Spirit". Fue identificado por el Arts Council of New York, unos años antes de su muerte en 1926, como uno de los tres mejores artistas vivos de Estados Unidos. Su legado de enseñanza incluyó el reconocimiento de mujeres artistas. Henri creía que los artistas deben ser realistas en Estados Unidos, afirmando que lo que necesitamos "es arte que exprese el espíritu de la gente de hoy ..." Eso es lo que animó a sus alumnos a hacer, y eso es lo que hizo en sus pinturas.


Robert Henri, Tom Po Qui (Agua de Antelope Lake / Indian Girl / Ramoncita)

Robert Henri realizó este sorprendente retrato de Ramoncita Gonzales (Tom Po Qui) (Tewa, San Juan Pueblo) en 1914, al comienzo de la Primera Guerra Mundial. La fecha de la pintura, la vitalidad de la paleta de Henri y la identidad indígena Pueblo de la modelo son claves para desentrañar el significado de la obra.

Robert Henri, Nieve en Nueva York, 1902, óleo sobre lienzo, 81,3 x 65,5 cm (Galería Nacional de Arte, foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Henri era, en ese momento, una figura importante en el mundo del arte estadounidense y fue reconocido como una figura destacada en el desarrollo del estilo de pintura de la Escuela Ashcan. Había sido el principal organizador de un grupo renegado de artistas conocido como The Eight. Tom Po Qui fue pintado seis años después, relativamente tarde en su carrera, y aquí vemos un cambio de estilo.

Entrada al Armory Show de la ciudad de Nueva York, 69th Regiment Armory, Nueva York, 1913

Una nueva vitalidad

Justo un año antes de la producción de esta obra, el mundo del arte de Nueva York había sido sacudido por el Armory Show de 1913 (también conocido como la Exposición Internacional de Arte Moderno), que fue la primera gran exposición de arte moderno realizada en los Estados Unidos. . Si bien algunos artistas estadounidenses (incluido Henri) se incluyeron en el espectáculo, fueron los europeos quienes realmente sorprendieron al público con sus estilos de vanguardia, incluidos el fauvismo, el cubismo y el futurismo. Para los espectadores estadounidenses que recientemente se habían acostumbrado al realismo descarnado de Henri y sus compañeros pintores de la Escuela Ashcan, las obras experimentales europeas fueron impactantes.

izquierda: Robert Henri, Figura en movimiento, 1913, óleo sobre lienzo, 196,2 x 94,6 cm (Terra Foundation for American Art) derecha: Marcel Duchamp, Desnudo descendiendo una escalera (n. ° 2), 1912, óleo sobre lienzo, 151,8 x 93,3 cm (Museo de Arte de Filadelfia)

De hecho, una de las contribuciones de Henri al espectáculo, Figura en movimiento, a menudo se compara con la famosa composición cubista de Marcel Duchamp Desnudo bajando una escalera (n. ° 2) como una forma de subrayar el carácter decididamente representativo del realismo americano con los planos planos y la calidad abstracta de la vanguardia europea. Si bien el trabajo de Henri siguió siendo figurativo en los años posteriores al espectáculo de la Armería, su técnica se volvió más flexible y su paleta se volvió más clara y brillante, probablemente debido en parte a experimentar las obras fauvistas en la Armería.

Robert Henri, Tom Po Qui (Agua de Antelope Lake / Indian Girl / Romancita) (detalle), 1914, óleo sobre lienzo 40-½ x 32-½ pulgadas (Museo de Arte de Denver)

Sin embargo, los colores vivos de Tom Po Qui No se puede explicar por la exposición a los estilos modernistas europeos solo que Henri estaba en California cuando pintó este lienzo también es importante. Henri, con sede en Nueva York, normalmente pasaba los veranos en el extranjero, viajando a varios lugares europeos (los viajes anteriores importantes incluyeron Irlanda, Holanda y España). Sin embargo, la Primera Guerra Mundial estalló en el verano de 1914, lo que hizo insostenibles los viajes internacionales. Como muchos estadounidenses cuyos planes de viaje se limitaban a viajes nacionales, Henri volvió la mirada hacia el oeste. Tomó el tren a California y se conformó con los meses de verano en La Jolla.

Robert Henri, Tom Po Qui (Agua de Antelope Lake / Indian Girl / Romancita) (detalle), 1914, óleo sobre lienzo 40-½ x 32-½ pulgadas (Museo de Arte de Denver)

Henri se sintió particularmente atraído por la intensa luz del sur de California, declarando las condiciones ideales para los pintores. Su afinidad por esta luz se puede ver en el retrato de Tom Po Qui, donde el telón de fondo de la pintura no son los espacios interiores oscuros comunes en su obra anterior, sino más bien un escenario pintado de forma suelta que evoca la región costera salpicada de luz solar donde se encontraba. La pincelada irregular y los colores brillantes pueden mostrar evidencia de la influencia de modernistas europeos como Paul Cézanne y Henri Matisse, pero también el impacto de hacer ejercicio en el oeste.

"Mi gente"

Henri no solo se sintió atraído por la luz de California, sino que también se sintió atraído por la diversa población de la zona. A lo largo de su carrera, Henri se dedicó a encontrar personas nuevas e interesantes para pintar, buscando modelos de diferentes posiciones sociales, profesiones, regiones y etnias. En California, estaba especialmente interesado en encontrar modelos de lo que él entendía como diversas identidades raciales. Durante lo que eventualmente serían tres viajes a la zona, pintó modelos negros, chino-americanos, mexicano-americanos e indios americanos. En un artículo de 1915 basado en estas obras, Henri afirmaba: “No me interesaba que estas personas sentimentales sobre ellas, lamentaran el hecho de que hemos destruido al indio, que estamos transformando a la tímida niña china en una soubrette. . . Miro a cada individuo con la ansiosa esperanza de encontrar algo de la dignidad de la vida, el humor, la humanidad, la bondad ”. [1]

izquierda: Robert Henri, Silvestre, 1914, óleo sobre lienzo, 81,2 x 66 cm (Terra Foundation for American Art) derecha: Robert Henri, Tam Gan, 1914, óleo sobre lienzo, 60,96 x 50,8 cm (Galería de arte Albright-Knox)

Hoy leemos su retórica como problemáticamente racista y condescendiente, particularmente a la luz del título propietario del artículo, "Mi gente". Pero el deseo de Henri de pintar a estos modelos como individuos dignos desafía, no obstante, los estereotipos raciales más virulentos típicos de la época, incluso cuando su enfoque podría convertirse en exotismo.

Robert Henri, Tom Po Qui (Agua de Antelope Lake / Indian Girl / Romancita) (detalle), 1914, óleo sobre lienzo 40-½ x 32-½ pulgadas (Museo de Arte de Denver)

Tom Po Qui es un excelente ejemplo de este tipo de retratos. Por un lado, la obra parece presentar a Gonzales como un tipo étnico, su colorida vestimenta nativa y deslumbrantes joyas de plata resaltadas de una manera que parece convertirla en un objeto decorativo, presentado para ser consumido por audiencias no nativas ansiosas por ver representaciones. de la exótica cultura indígena americana. Sin embargo, Gonzales mira fuera del lienzo con dominio de sí mismo, encontrando uniformemente la mirada del espectador de una manera que interrumpe la interpretación de esta obra como completamente explotadora. La agencia de esta modelo no puede ser ignorada y, de hecho, el registro histórico sobre la identidad de Gonzales como artista e intérprete de Pueblo por derecho propio aporta más matices al análisis de esta pintura.

Desierto pintado

Henri pintó a Gonzales no en La Jolla, sino en la cercana San Diego, en el sitio de la Exposición Panamá-California, que se inauguraría en 1915. La Exposición Panamá-California se llevó a cabo entre el 1 de enero de 1915 y el 1 de enero de 1917 en San Diego. Parque Balboa, para celebrar la apertura del Canal de Panamá y promover el turismo en la región. La construcción estaba en marcha para las diversas exhibiciones de la Exposición, incluido el "Desierto Pintado", una exhibición etnográfica con un pueblo reconstruido a gran escala que exhibiría cientos de artistas Pueblo, Navajo y Apache. Los organizadores pidieron a varias familias de Pueblo que viajen desde sus hogares en Nuevo México al sitio con anticipación y que ayuden en la construcción. Gonzales estaba entre ellos, llegando con su prima María Martínez y el esposo de María, Julián. Mientras que Julián Martínez se desempeñó como capataz de construcción, Gonzáles y María Martínez construyeron las grandes ollas que servían como chimeneas en los espacios habitables del Pueblo reconstruido. Cuando se inauguró la feria, continuarían produciendo cerámica, esta vez para la venta a los visitantes que acudían en masa a la exposición. El interés turístico por la alfarería Pueblo durante este período estimuló un renacimiento en la práctica, que casi se había extinguido a fines del siglo XIX.

Fotógrafa desconocida, María Martínez y Ramoncita Gonzales haciendo cerámica, Exhibición del Desierto Pintado, Exposición Panamá-California, 1915 (foto: Museo del Hombre de San Diego)

Los asistentes a la feria ocasionalmente compraban vasijas, pero también visitaban la exhibición del Desierto Pintado para simplemente observar a los pueblos indígenas que residían allí, realizando actividades consideradas tradicionales, incluida la producción de cerámica. Los visitantes vieron cómo María Martínez y Ramoncita Gonzales daban forma y disparaban sus vasijas, con Julián Martínez proporcionando los diseños pintados. Estas figuras de Pueblo eran artistas / intérpretes que acordaron presentarse como pueblos nativos que viven de manera tradicional a cambio de los salarios pagados por los organizadores de la feria. Asimismo, cuando artistas como Henri visitaron el recinto ferial en busca de modelos, los artistas de Pueblo aceptaron sentarse, o podríamos decir, representar su identidad tradicional.

Robert Henri, Tom Po Qui (Agua de Antelope Lake / Indian Girl / Romancita) (detalle), 1914, óleo sobre lienzo 40-½ x 32-½ pulgadas (Museo de Arte de Denver)

Gonzales probablemente seleccionó su atuendo para Tom Po Qui es el mismo tipo de ropa y joyas que la vemos a ella y a otras mujeres Pueblo cuando se inauguró la exposición. A medida que los medios de vida tradicionales de los pueblos se veían amenazados por la invasión de la cultura blanca, Gonzales y otros recurrieron a la producción de artículos turísticos y al espectáculo como "Indios del espectáculo" como una cuestión de supervivencia. Imágenes como Tom Po Qui son recordatorios de las prácticas de explotación y exotización que llevaron a la gente de Pueblo como Gonzales a asumir el desempeño de su identidad indígena por seguridad financiera. Sin embargo, vale la pena señalar que, simultáneamente, este trabajo documentó la agencia de los pueblos indígenas en los primeros años del siglo XX, ya que adaptaron las tradiciones indígenas a las necesidades de sus vidas modernas.

[1] Robert Henri, "Mi gente", El artesano vol. 27, no. 5 (febrero de 1915), pág. 467.

Derrick Cartwright y Valerie Ann Leeds, California de Robert Henri: realismo, raza y Región 1914-1925 (Laguna, CA: Laguna Art Museum, 2014)

Ruth B. Phillips, "Interpretación de la mujer nativa: primitivismo y mimetismo en la cultura visual de principios del siglo XX", Antimodernismo y experiencia artística: vigilando los límites de la modernidad, editado por Lynda Jessup, 26–49 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001)

W. Jackson corriendo, El arte nativo americano y la vanguardia de Nueva York (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995)


Ближайшие родственники

Acerca de Robert Henry Pedigo, I

Historia de la familia Pedigo en América Contribución de: Frank Edward Durham & # x00b7 20 de julio de 2015 & # x00b7 Edward Pedigo (Pediford) (Peregoy) (25 de diciembre de 1730-26 de abril de 1834)

Edward Pedigo, a menudo referido como & # x201cGrand-Sire Ned & # x201d por su familia, era el hijo de Henry Peregoy, Sr. del condado de Baltimore, Maryland por su primera esposa, Amy Green. Su abuelo fue Joseph Peregois (1665-1720), quien emigró a Maryland desde Francia en 1685. Según la tradición familiar, Edward y su hermano mayor, Robert, se escapó de casa cuando aún eran adolescentes para escapar de las opresiones de una madrastra tiránica. Los dos chicos cambiaron la ortografía de su nombre a Pedigo y se establecieron en York River Valley de Virginia. Más tarde se trasladaron a la región salvaje del sur de Piedmont, un área que ahora abarca los condados de Patrick y Henry. Fue aquí donde los hermanos casaron a las hermanas Elkin Edward con Hannah Elkins y Robert a Mary Elkins. Ambas familias tuvieron hijos llamados Joseph, Henry, Elijah y John, y ambos tuvieron hijas llamadas Elizabeth y Amy.

En una carta fechada el 8 de noviembre de 1904, George Edwin Pedigo (entonces de 86 años) escribió desde Randolph, condado de Metcalfe, Ky. Lo siguiente:

& # x201cEn el año 1805 mi abuelo, Joseph Pedigo, se mudó de Virginia a Kentucky y se estableció cerca de Pleasant Hill. La casa está en el terreno que compró (250 acres en 1816). Dos o tres años después de esto, regresó a Virginia y trasladó al abuelo Ned a Kentucky y lo instaló en parte de su tierra. Grand-Sire Ned vivió allí hasta la muerte de su esposa, luego fue con su hijo Joseph & # x2019s y vivió y murió allí. Habiendo muerto mi madre, me colocaron en casa de mi abuela & # x2019 y mi abuelo & # x2019 (Joseph y Dolly Edwards Pedigo), y esperé a Grand-Sire Ned hasta que murió. Fue enterrado a dos millas y media al norte de la iglesia de Pleasant Hill. No hay cementerio aquí entonces. & # X201d

Edward Pedigo llegó a Kentucky con su hijo mayor, Joseph, que se había mudado allí tres años antes. Joseph Pedigo se casó con Dorothy Edwards en Virginia en 1783, y cuando la pareja se mudó al condado de Barren, Kentucky en 1805, fueron acompañados por varios de los hermanos de Joseph & # x2019, incluidos los hermanos Henry, Levi y Elkin. Joseph luego regresó al condado de Patrick, Virginia, para buscar a sus padres y llevarlos a su nuevo hogar. Para entonces, Edward era un anciano de unos 73 años. Eventualmente viviría hasta la edad madura de 104 años, y murió el 26 de abril de 1834, cerca de Randolph, Kentucky (según el registro bíblico de John Grogan Pedigo, nieto de Edward y Hannah). La granja original estaba ubicada en el condado de Barren, cerca del pueblo de Randolph, pero ahora se encuentra en el condado de Metcalfe y se formó a partir de Barren en 1860. Se cree que Edward y dos de sus hijos (Joseph y Henry) están enterrados en lo que fue el antiguo cementerio de la familia Pedigo. ubicado aproximadamente a 0,1 milla al sur de Randolph. Ya no se puede identificar la ubicación exacta del cementerio, ya que el sitio ha sido arrasado por una excavadora en los últimos años.

La forma actual del nombre, Pedigo, fue adoptada por las ramas de la familia de Virginia y Kentucky, pero la familia de Maryland sigue siendo una de las formas más antiguas, que es Peregoy. Sin embargo, existen varias formas reconocidas del mismo nombre: Pedego, Perego, Peregory, Peregoe, Perigo, Pedigoy. Estos formularios se han extraído de varios documentos y en un testamento antiguo hay cinco de estos formularios.

Edward Pedigo fue un patriota estadounidense y tiene un historial largo e interesante, no solo en la Guerra Revolucionaria, sino también en la Guerra Francesa e India. Sirvió en la milicia del condado de Halifax, Virginia, registrado en septiembre de 1758 como Edward Peregoy, durante dos períodos antes de esa fecha. Estuvo con Washington en Fort Duquesne, el escenario de la derrota del general Braddock & # x2019, siendo uno de los treinta virginianos que abandonaron el campo de batalla con vida. Cuando las colonias se rebelaron contra Inglaterra, Edward vio el servicio de la Guerra Revolucionaria bajo el nombre de Edward & # x201cPediford & # x201d (junto con otras variantes ortográficas) y sirvió como soldado raso con los Regimientos 3, 5, 7 y 11 de Virginia. Después de la guerra, recibió una autorización de tierras de la Oficina de Tierras del Estado de Virginia por tres años de servicio en la Línea Continental.

Se alistó por primera vez el 13 de febrero de 1778, durante un año y sirvió en el Capitán Charles Fleming & # x2019s Company, Seventh Virginia Foot, comandado por el Coronel Alexander McClenachan. Como los Regimientos de Virginia a menudo se combinaban y reorganizaban, Edward pronto estuvo en el Capitán Henry Young & # x2019s Company de los Regimientos 3 y 7, y más tarde en los Regimientos 5 y 11. Algunas de sus listas tienen mucho interés histórico, mostrándolo con Washington en Valley Forge, en Morristown, y con las tropas que ayudan a la flota de D & # x2019Estaining & # x2019 en Savannah. Vio acción en la Batalla de Monmouth Courthouse el 28 de junio de 1778. La lista de convocados para diciembre de 1778 habla de su reenganche durante la guerra. Su última lista de personal sobreviviente está fechada en & # x201cCamp cerca de Morristown, 09 de diciembre de 1779, & # x201d, pero no muestra su servicio posterior, que se demuestra por su orden militar de tierras del 12 de enero de 1784, recitando tres años de servicio. Es casi seguro que Edward estaba con el resto de los soldados y oficiales de la Línea Virginia cuando fueron capturados por las fuerzas británicas en el Asedio de Charleston el 12 de mayo de 1780.


Robert Henri - Historia

Nota del editor: El Museo de Arte Estadounidense de Minnesota proporcionó material fuente a la Revista Resource Library para el siguiente artículo. Si tiene preguntas o comentarios sobre el material original, comuníquese con el Museo de Arte Americano de Minnesota directamente a través de este número de teléfono o dirección web:

Robert Henri y su influencia

26 de octubre - 31 de diciembre de 2002

El Museo de Arte Estadounidense de Minnesota presenta la exposición Robert Henri and His Influence, hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2002. Presenta pinturas, grabados y obras en papel de Robert Henri y 11 artistas asociados con los primeros movimientos modernos estadounidenses del siglo XX. la escuela Ashcan y los ocho. (izquierda: William Glackens (1870-1938), Beach Scene, Isle Adam, fecha de pintado desconocida, óleo sobre lienzo, MMAA Margaret MacLaren Bequest)

Esta exposición representa la tremenda diversidad estética que caracterizó estos movimientos, desde el retrato hasta las escenas de la calle, y el papel que Henri tuvo en dar forma a su dirección. Se incluyen obras de Henri y los otros miembros de The Eight (Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn y John Sloan) y otros artistas influidos por Henri, incluidos George Bellows, Arthur B. Carles, William Merritt Chase y Walt Kuhn.

Henri tuvo un profundo impacto en el arte estadounidense. Un maestro popular y defensor de los estilos de pintura aventureros, dio forma a The Eight y Ashcan School. Su presencia dinámica como artista y educador y su entusiasmo por los detalles de la vida trajeron una nueva confianza a los artistas estadounidenses. Con Henri como líder no oficial, el innovador grupo de artistas conocido como "Los ocho" se formó en 1907. Influenciados por los ilustradores de periódicos entre ellos, estaban decididos a retratar de manera realista la vida de la ciudad. En ese momento, Estados Unidos estaba dividido entre extremos económicos: los industriales acumulaban grandes fortunas mientras la inmigración masiva conducía a la pobreza urbana. La precisión de sus pinturas de los barrios marginales de Nueva York les dio el sobrenombre de `` Escuela Ashcan ''. Aunque The Eight celebró solo una exposición como grupo en 1908, varios miembros desempeñaron un papel decisivo en la organización del famoso New York Armory Show de 1913 que revolucionó el arte moderno estadounidense. (izquierda: Everett Shinn (1876-1953), The Old Bus, 1904, pastel sobre papel, MMAA Weyand Fund Purchase)

Robert Henri and His Influence se organizó a partir de la colección de la Galería de Arte Sheldon Memorial en Lincoln, Nebraska, y se complementa con obras del Museo de Arte Americano de Minnesota y colecciones privadas.

The Eight and the Ashcan School representaron una tremenda diversidad estética que llegó a caracterizar la historia del arte moderno en los Estados Unidos. Funcionaron esencialmente como un grupo expositor con una filosofía compartida, en lugar de un estilo artístico compartido. Los miembros de The Eight desempeñaron un papel decisivo en la organización y promoción del famoso New York Armory Show de 1913, la primera dosis de modernismo europeo en Estados Unidos, que representó un hito importante en el arte y la cultura estadounidenses. Representando el espectro completo de estilos artísticos que manifiestan el alcance de la influencia de Robert Henri, George Bellows, Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Walt Kuhn, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn y John Sloan están asociados con esta incursión estadounidense inicial. en el modernismo en el siglo XX.

Robert Earl Henri, originalmente Robert Henry Cozad, nació el 25 de junio de 1865 en Cincinnati, Ohio. Su padre, John Jackson Cozad, era un ex jugador que se convirtió en desarrollador de bienes raíces, y su madre, Theresa Gatewood Cozad, era ama de casa. En 1873, él y su familia se mudaron al oeste a las grandes llanuras de Nebraska, donde su padre fundó la ciudad de Cozad. La ciudad estaba habitada principalmente por granjeros y, debido a que sus granjas ocupaban tierras de pastos selectos, el padre de Henri tuvo dificultades con los ganaderos establecidos que habían estado allí durante muchos años. Una noche, en 1882, uno de los ganaderos atacó al padre de Henri con un cuchillo. En defensa propia, le disparó mortalmente con una pistola y luego huyó. Aunque más tarde fue absuelto de cualquier acto indebido, nunca regresó. En cambio, se instaló en Denver, Colorado, donde su familia se reunió más tarde con él. Para disociarse del escándalo, cada uno de los miembros de la familia cambió sus nombres y Robert Henry Cozad se convirtió en Robert Earl Henri (pronunciado Hen-rye). (izquierda: Robert Henri (1865-1929), Autorretrato, 1903, óleo sobre lienzo, Universidad de Nebraska-Lincoln, Obsequio de la Sra. Olga N. Sheldon)

Aunque tuvieron éxito en Denver, los Cozad, ahora los Lee, sabían que ofrecía pocas oportunidades para la educación y el futuro de sus hijos, por lo que se mudaron al este y se establecieron en Atlantic City, Nueva Jersey, en 1883. Mientras estaba allí, Henri produjo sus dos primeras pinturas. y, cuando lo vio un amigo, se animó a buscar una formación artística formal. Al año siguiente, Henri se inscribió en la Academia de Bellas Artes de Pensilvania (PAFA), la institución de arte más antigua de los Estados Unidos, en Filadelfia, Pensilvania. El plan de estudios fue riguroso. Incluyó el estudio de anatomía, muchas horas de dibujo, pintura y modelado de la figura humana, y clases de composición, perspectiva y retrato. Con el tiempo, Henri mejoró sus habilidades artísticas y se ganó la admiración de su instructor, Thomas Anshutz.

Después de dos años en la PAFA, Henri se dio cuenta de que tendría que ir a Europa si quería una formación artística formal completa. So, in 1888, Henri went to Paris and attended the Académie Julian, and later transferred to the École des Beaux-Arts, one of the most famous and well-respected art schools in the world.

In 1891, Henri returned to Philadelphia and, the following year, began his long career as an art instructor his first job was at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. He also continued formal art training at the PAFA.

During this time, Henri met and befriended a group of young artists and newspaper illustrators who admired him for his talent and the fact that he was one of few artists in Philadelphia to have studied in Paris. Henri invited these
men to his studio for weekly discussions on art, ethics, literature, music, and politics, which, consequently, created a dynamic artistic environment. More importantly, however, he lectured on the role of artists in the United States. Henri firmly believed that serious artists should develop their own means of expression, and not be pressured into following - and perpetuating - aesthetic conventions.

Of those who attended the weekly discussions, four were newspaper illustrators, namely William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan, who, collectively, were known as the "Philadelphia Four." Although three of the four had studied at the PAFA, they did not aspire to be serious artists. Henri, however, encouraged them to paint. He never imposed a style upon them because he wanted them to develop their own means of expression. He did offer advice, though:

"Paint what you feel. Paint what you see. Paint what is real to you."

During the latter-half of the 1890's, Henri divided his time between Philadelphia and Paris. He believed Philadelphians, compared to Parisians, were not as accepting of his works. In order to gain acceptance and recognition in Philadelphia, or anywhere in the United States, he first had to prove himself as a successful artist in Paris. And that he did. In 1896, one of Henri's works was accepted for the Salon and, in 1899, three more of his works were accepted. The following year, Henri returned to the United States and settled in New York, where the "Philadelphia Four" also settled.

In 1902, Henri accepted a teaching position at the New York School of Art. He was an extremely popular instructor, and quickly found himself receiving awards and serving on juries at various institutions, including the relatively conservative National Academy of Design. Although Henri disagreed with the Academy and its stance on art, he hoped he could reform it from within. Although his works were often accepted for the Academy's annual exhibition, largely because they were portraits, works by other young artists, such as Glackens, Luks, Shinn, and Sloan, were not.

In 1907, after years of fighting with the Academy, Henri withdrew two of his works from the annual exhibition, citing an unfair attitude towards young artists, and organized his own exhibition, featuring his and his friends' works. The result was the exhibition of "The Eight" (i.e. Henri, Glackens, Luks, Shinn, Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, and Maurice Prendergast) at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. The exhibition, which opened on February 3, 1908, was an immediate success, not only because of its publicity, which was provided for by the "Philadelphia Four," but also because the works were more accurate and livelier representations of life in the United States than anything selected for exhibition by the Academy. In all, over 7,000 visitors attended the exhibition and about $4,000 worth of works were sold. Reaction from the critics was mixed although some disliked their coarse, vulgar subjects and lack of technique, others praised their creativity and truthfulness regarding the diversity and social conditions of the United States, as well as their individuality without being confined to the Academy's conservative standards. (left: Robert Henri (1865-1929), Gypsy Girl in White, 1916, oil on canvas, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Howard S. Wilson Memorial)

The exhibition of "The Eight" marked a turning point in the art world, particularly in the United States. It proved, once and for all, that a group of progressive artists could hold an exhibition that was successful with both the amount of people it attracted and the amount of money it generated. And it was only a starting point. Its success gave "The Eight," as well as other progressive artists, the courage and determination to continue their fight against the Academy by holding larger and more radical exhibitions of both American and European art. Such was the case with the Armory Show of 1913, where Henri exhibited five works.

After several years of teaching at the New York School of Art, Henri opened his own school, the Henri School of Art, where he taught such artists as Patrick Henry Bruce, Stuart Davis, Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent, and Yasuo Kuniyoshi, all of whom are represented in the Sheldon's permanent collection. He also taught at the educationally and politically radical Ferrer Modern School, where Man Ray and Leon Trotsky attended his classes and, later, at the Art Students' League. In 1923, Henri's importance and influence were carried beyond the classroom with the publication of his book The Art Spirit, a collection of his lecture notes, criticisms, and other remarks on art. It is still in print today.

During the latter years of his life, Henri taught during the school year and traveled throughout the United States and Europe during the summer, often looking for subjects for his works. He grew particularly fond of Achill Island, off the coast of Ireland, where he spent many summers. Its simple way of life, not yet corrupted by civilization, was of great interest to him.

Henri died from cancer on July 12, 1929. He was 64.

Born in Columbus, Ohio, George Bellows was a major American artist of the early 20th century, known for his paintings of boxing match figures and for his lithographs of his paintings. Bellows cemented his place in American art with his series of works depicting urban life in New York City, circa 1910. He enjoyed much critical acclaim during his life, and was elected to the National Academy of Design. At the height of his career, Bellows died from appendicitis at the age of 42.

Arthur B. Carles was one of the first American proponents of Abstract Expressionism. He spent most of his life in Philadelphia where he studied, taught and exhibited at the Philadelphia Academy of the Fine Arts. Carles' paintings span turn-of-the-century academic impressionism, early American modernism, and the mid-century emergence of Abstract Expressionism. Regarded as a pioneer early in the century, he became an innovator. By the end of his career he was well ahead of his time.

William Merritt Chase is one of the most famous of all 19th century American painters, both as a painter coming out of the Munich tradition into modern impressionism and as a talented teacher. He studied painting in Munich for six years, and upon his return to the United States in 1878, quickly established himself as one of the foremost Impressionist painters in New York. Originally known for portraiture and still life work, he also gained a reputation for landscape painting.

Arthur B. Davies gained a reputation for ethereal figure paintings that expressed lightness and mysticism. He was also a principal organizer of the 1913 Armory Show. Davies developed a style that combined Symbolism with elements of Tonalism, Art Nouveau, and Cubism, and became increasingly interested in expressing a feeling of lightness in figural compositions. His involvement with the Modern artists is reflected in his production of cubist-inspired works during the period. He also did printmaking, producing some two hundred graphic works between 1916 and his death in 1928.

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, William Glackens became one of the Realist painters following Henri. His first job was as an artist-reporter for the Philadelphia Record . He then moved to the Philadelphia Press where Luks, Shinn, and Sloan were also employed. In 1919, he began sharing a studio with Henri, who encouraged Glackens to pursue a full-time career as a professional artist. Early in his painting career, he painted numerous scenes of Washington Square and Central Park. Glackens also adopted Impressionism and did many paintings of seaside resorts on Cape Cod and Long Island.

A painter and major organizer of the Armory Show, Walt Kuhn is perhaps best known for his circus figure/clown depictions. He also painted still lifes and landscapes. Kuhn was inspired and influenced by many artists, most notably Paul Cézanne. He was a key figure in forming the American Association of Painters and Sculptors, which organized the Armory Show of 1913. Kuhn was executive secretary of the Association and traveled abroad to select entries for that exhibition.

Working in a near-pure Impressionist style, Ernest Lawson's works often featured the urban landscape of New York. Lawson was born in Kansas City and studied at the Art Students League in New York City. Following brief study in Paris, Lawson stayed close to his home near Washington Heights, where he painted his most important canvases. In contrast to the other members of The Eight, who were all considered Social Realists, Lawson was the only member who exhibited pure landscapes. He worked in an Impressionistic style, and many of his works focus on the influence of human beings on the landscapes.

George Luks was a leading figure in the New York art world in the early part of the 20th century. He did lively portraits and genre paintings of everyday people engaged in activity, rather than self-consciously posed. He studied in Europe for several years and was much influenced by the paintings of Rembrandt and Frans Hals. He then worked for the Philadelphia Press , doing quick, accurate reportorial sketches, a method that became his forte. In Philadelphia he became friends with Sloan, Henri, Glackens and Shinn. In 1896 he moved to New York City, where he painted the people he saw on the street and joined with the Henri circle in depicting social realism.

Maurice Prendergast is known as a neo-impressionist rather than an Ashcan painter who was a member of The Eight. He is known for his lively, playful scenes that combine bold contoured forms with decorative surface patterning and bright, prismatic color. For most of his career he worked primarily in watercolor, but in the mid 1910s began to paint more in oil. He also made over 210 monotypes. By the time of his death in 1924, Prendergast had become one of the most famous American painters, well known for his views of the coastlines, beaches and parks in and around New England and Italy.

Everett Shinn was a Social Realist painter who focused on lower-class urban themes. He was also a cartoonist and illustrator. With the encouragement of Henri, Shinn moved to New York City, where he continued illustration work for various publications, and began exhibiting his paintings in fine art venues. Shinn's early paintings and pastels reflect his interest in the depiction of city living. His artwork also reveals an enchantment with the more glamorous aspects of urban life. In particular, Shinn's obsession with the theater may be seen in many dynamic works, which depict actresses, singers, and dancers on the stage, often compositionally related to the pastels of Edgar Degas.

John Sloan was a member of the Ashcan School and was an illustrator, painter, and printmaker. He became one of the major early 20th century figures in the Social Realist movement. He began his career as a newspaper illustrator for the Philadelphia Inquirer Sloan enrolled in a drawing class at the Academy taught by Thomas Anshutz, and eventually began renting Henri's studio, which became a meeting place of other young newspaper illustrators. After the 1913 Armory Show, Sloan experimented with more radical painting styles. Although he considered himself a professional artist, he continued to support himself as a commercial illustrator until 1916. Sloan was also an early eastern painter in the Southwest, active in the Santa Fe colony and in getting other eastern artists to head west.

Following is additional text excerpted from panels placed on the walls of the exhibition:

As an artist, art teacher, and advocate for modern art, Robert Henri influenced, and continues to influence, generations of artists with not only his artworks but also through his book, The Art Spirit , published in 1923, which remains in print and is still in high demand today. Henri's philosophy of art was an important catalyst in the history and development of international modern art in the United States. His philosophy was derived from romantic humanism, modernism, and American pragmatism, a blend that made European modern art less threatening to an art audience skeptical of abstraction and avant-gardism. Henri's interest in developing the artist's individual expressive freedom enabled artists to enter the international art world in an unprecedented manner. In fact several members of The Eight were instrumental in organizing and promoting the famous Armory Show of 1913, Americas first dose of European modernism, which represented a major watershed in American art and culture. This exhibition, of which Henri took part, had an inescapable effect, both directly and indirectly, on him, challenging his artistic beliefs and personal leadership. Representing the full spectrum of artistic styles that manifest the scope of Henri's influence, George Bellows, William Merritt Chase, Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Walt Kuhn, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan are all associated with this initial American foray into modernism in the twentieth century. The Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and Sculpture Garden presents Henri's work in the context of the many important artists he influenced in the first decades of the twentieth-century. Many of these artists were associated with both The Eight and later with the so-called Ashcan School, both of which were shaped and sustained by the energies of Henri. The Eight, which exhibited during the first decade of the twentieth century, included artists William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, and Robert Henri. Functioning essentially as an exhibiting group or community and not because of a similar style or aesthetic art form, these artists represented a tremendous aesthetic diversity that came to characterize the history of modern art in the United States. The term Ashcan School, which first appeared in a 1934 book by Alfred Barr and Holger Cahill, describes some of The Eight who were interested in the banal and mundane subject matter and usually painted them in a dark palette derived from the Munich School. Indeed, the interrelationship of The Eight and the Ashcan School are due to Henri's strong involvement with both groups. With thirty paintings and works on paper and a collection of archival materials, the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery collection is the most comprehensive public assembly of Henri's oeuvre.

Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Minnesota Museum of American Art in Resource Library Magazine

Busque más artículos y ensayos sobre arte estadounidense en la Biblioteca de recursos. Consulte Artistas distinguidos de Estados Unidos para obtener información biográfica sobre artistas históricos.

Esta página se publicó originalmente en 2002 en Resource Library Magazine. Consulte la sección Descripción general de la biblioteca de recursos para obtener más información.

Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. Reservados todos los derechos.


Robert Henri


National Art Databases and Museum Inventories:

Smithsonian American Art Museum National Art Inventories
List of works nationwide from two sources: the Inventory of American Paintings Executed before 1914 and the Inventory of American Sculpture (only a few percent of listings have an accompanying image)

Christie's Past Sale Archive
(database goes as far back as 1991 images go about as far back as 1999)

Sotheby's Sold Lot Archive
(database goes as far back as 1998 images where permitted by copyright go about as far back as 2001)

Additional Image Search Tools:
(SafeSearch set to "strict" go to Advanced Search (Flickr/Google) or Preferences (Bing) to change)

Salon Acquisitions in France by the Service des Beaux-Arts, 1864-1901 (in French)
(Vintage documentation reproductions are monochrome but usually quite large)
La neige , from the Salon of 1899

Encyclopedia Britannica complete article on Robert Henri
Note: The full version of the article is available only if you follow this link . If you bookmark the article and return later, or if you navigate directly to the Britannica website, you will see a 100-word preview only. Solución de problemas

Union List of Artist Names (Getty Museum)
Reference sheet with basic information about the artist and pointers to other references.

Antiques & Fine Art Magazine
"Painterly Controversy: William Merritt Chase and Robert Henri" (2007)

"Look Inside" and "Search Inside" Books at Amazon
Look Inside Books:Selections from the books listed below are scanned in, in high res. Text is clearly readable and art reproductions vary from so-so to excellent. Don't miss the fact that you can usually zoom in via the "View" drop-down menu, along the top row of Amazon's Online Reader.
Search Inside Books:Same as "Look Inside", except that the entire book is scanned in, and the text is fully searchable . This is an unbelievable resource, for research and especially for previewing a book when making the decision to buy.
Note: Some "Search Inside" features are limited to people signed in to an account which has previously made a purchase at Amazon.
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The Art Spirit

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Blue Heron Blast



In my opinion, Robert Henri was the most pathetically overhyped American artist and the Ash Can School only possibly matched by the Oakland Society of Six in it's members lack of artistic merit and their overblown popularity. In fact, the latter day artist that most favorably compares to Henri is Walter (Margaret) Keane. They both liked to paint syrupy portraits of children with big eyes, however Keane was never under the illusion that he was creating great art. Like Keane, Henri's subjects always had the same rosy cheeks and monotonous and unwavering emotional palette. He used thick impasto and big sloppy brushwork.

From Wikipedia:

In Philadelphia, Henri began to attract a group of followers who met in his studio to discuss art and culture, including several illustrators for the Philadelphia Press newspaper who would become known as the 'Philadelphia Four': William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, and John French Sloan. The gatherings became known as the "Charcoal Club", featuring life drawing and readings in the social philosophy of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Émile Zola, and Henry David Thoreau. By 1895, Henri had come to reconsider Impressionism, calling it a new academicism. In 1906, he was elected to the National Academy of Design, but when painters in his circle were rejected for the Academy's 1907 exhibition, he accused fellow jurors of bias and walked off the jury, resolving to organize a show of his own. He would later refer to the Academy as "a cemetery of art."


In February 1908, Henri organized a landmark show entitled "The Eight" (after the eight painters displaying their works) at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. Besides his own works and those produced by the "Philadelphia Four" (who had followed Henri to New York by this time), there were paintings by Maurice Prendergast, Ernest Lawson, and Arthur B. Davies. These painters and this exhibition would become associated with the Ashcan School, although the content of the show was diverse and that term was not coined until 1934. In May 1908, he married 22-year old Irish-born Marjorie Organ.


In 1910, Henri organized the Exhibition of Independent Artists, a no-jury, no-prize show modeled after the Salon des Independants in France. Works were hung alphabetically to emphasize the egalitarian philosophy. Walt Kuhn, who took part in this show, would come to play a key role in the Armory Show, an exhibition mounted in 1913 that introduced many American viewers to avant-garde European art. Five of Henri's paintings were included in the Armory Show.


Now the salient question is how the American public, exposed and nurtured on the brilliance of Hassam, Eakins, Whistler and Sargent, could fall for these bogus antecedents of 50's clown genre painting. I think the answer is the New York centricism that both then and now pervades the art market. You could have a blind chihuaha tap dancing on a canvas with paint on its paws and someone in the five boroughs would proclaim it an artistic tour de force. And the American public would buy it. The rest of the eight, with the possible exception of Glackens, were similar one trick pony nogoodniks, whose exalted status has been fraudulently foisted on the American public. Sloan lacked rudimentary drawing skills, Prendergrast's work was thin and repetitive, Luks and Shinn were interesting artists in a regional sense, sort of second rate corollaries to the European Schiele and Klimt, but not deserving of the acclaim they ultimately achieved. These painters were awarded the sobriquet "Apostles of Ugliness" by the public, based on their gritty representation of life during the time. That verite is well and good if the image is at least rendered well or imaginatively. Bellows and Hopper are sometimes associated with the Ash Can school but their work stands head and shoulders above the original eight in it's brilliance.

From Wikipedia:
Walter Keane was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, Walter Keane became a highly-popular post World War II figure painter of wide-eyed "lost" children, waif-like and sympathy provoking. These images were reproduced throughout the world with originals in many collections including the United Nations, the National Museum of Contemporary Art in Madrid, Spain, and the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, Japan. At the age of fifteen, he moved to Los Angeles to live with an uncle, and as a young adult, seemed headed towards a business career, following in the footsteps of his father. However, he began painting on his own, and in 1938, abandoned the business idea to attend college in Berkeley from where he graduated three years laterHe became so torn emotionally between the pressure of his father to be practical and go into business and his own inner drive to be an artist that he developed ulcers. But late in 1943, he made the final decision to become an artist and painted full time for a year in Berkeley and then enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris where he lived a raucous Bohemian-style life. In Paris, he painted street scenes and figures including nudes, and from 1946 to 1947, he went to Berlin where he began his signature theme of "Lost Children." These paintings were inspired by his shock at seeing the thousands of war-orphaned, poverty-stricken children. Wanting to capture the realism of these people, he abandoned the Abstract Expressionism he had flirted with and focused on a style that more closely resembled Realism with elements of Modernism. He stayed in Europe until 1949 and then returned to Berkeley where he worked from his Berlin drawings and did a lot of painting in Sausalito, living at North Beach. He married his wife, Margaret, also an artist, and they lived in Oakland, and became public personalities because his work was collected by so many movie stars. By 1956, he and Margaret opened a gallery at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Honolulu, and again his work got much attention. Shortly after, the couple returned to San Francisco where they had a gallery at 494 Broadway for two years and then opened a gallery in New York City. Again he had many collectors but also received criticism for being repetitious with every canvas having a "lost" child. In 1965, Walter and Margaret Keane divorced, and a judge ruled against him when he made claims that certain paintings of waif-like children signed Keane were by him. When the judge asked Margaret and Walter to each produce a painting in that style and subject matter, he declined and she readily performed. The conclusion, according to "Artnews" November, 2000 is that some of the paintings attributed to him are in fact by his former wife.

When I was taking art history in college, I dared to ask if these guys were in fact wearing clothes. Some of the abstractionists seemed to be lousy painters looking for an "easy" venue to hide their natural lack of talent. This would tend to enrage the professors, who said that of course they knew how to draw, but they had gone beyond the yeoman's craft of drawing and painting. The truth is that many never learned how to draw. Look at Selden Connor Gile and compare his draftsmanship to your average second grader and tell me honestly who has the superior skills? And you may want to find a couple of those neat Keane paintings. If Henri is such a big splash, they are bound to appreciate.


Looking Up to His Noble Father: The Early Life of Henry I

The death of a great king rarely failed to cause succession troubles, no matter the historical period. The king’s wealth and power are coveted by his offspring even before he is dead. And in early Norman England, this was especially true.

William, starting off as the Duke of Normandy , managed to greatly expand his power after launching a successful invasion of Anglo-Saxon England in 1066. Over the next few decades, he solidified his rule and in many ways greatly changed the face of medieval Europe. Of course, as a powerful ruler, William the Conqueror sired many children. He and his wife Matilda had at least nine children, however not all of them reached adulthood. The succession struggles would ultimately fall to his three sons: Henry, William Rufus, and Robert Curthose. All three of them inherited their father’s cunning and the desire to rule, all the more emphasized by their restless Norman roots.

The Bayeux Tapestry, chronicling the English/Norman battle in 1066 which led to the Norman Conquest, led by William the Conqueror, father of King Henry I. (alipaiman / Dominio publico )

Henry’s date of birth is generally accepted as 1068 AD. The location of his birth is most likely Selby, located in Yorkshire. His date of birth tells us that it happened just two years after his father, William, conquered England. His mother was Matilda of Flanders, the daughter of a prominent nobleman, Count Baldwin V of Flanders. Henry was the youngest son of this noble couple and the fourth son overall.

An early portrait of the young Henry I long before he became king of England. ( Dominio publico )

However, the couple’s second son, Richard of Normandy, would die early on in his youth, and that left only Henry, William, and Robert. There was also a noticeable age difference between the brothers, as Henry was born more than a decade after his siblings. However, this difference in no way stopped the brothers from vying for power.


Robert Henri (1865-1929)

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American painter, Robert Henri was one of the leading figures of the Ashcan School of Art in New York. This was an art movement best known for a style of oil painting which portrayed the realism of everyday life in New York. Henri was also noted for his portrait art and figurative works. Born in Ohio, his family moved to New York when he was a teenager. He studied in Paris at the Julian Academy, where he came under the influence of French Impressionism. He continued his studies at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. It was at the Pennsylvania Academy, that he met the first members of the Ashcan School, the modern artists William Glackens (1870-1938), George Luks (1867-1933), Everett Shinn (1876-1953) and John French Sloan (1871-1951). The other painters who joined to make "The Eight", were Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928), Ernest Lawson (1873-1939) and Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924). They held their first group exhibition in 1908 to critical acclaim. By this time Henri had rejected traditional academic painting and Impressionism in favour of a raw, realistic, almost muddy style. In 1913 five of Henri's paintings were accepted for the famous Armory show, the exhibition that first introduced the American public to European modern art. Between 1915 and 1927 he was an influential teacher at the Arts Student League, some of his pupils included Edward Hopper (1882-1967), George Bellows (1882-1925), Rockwell Kent (1882-1971) and Yasuo Kuniyoshi (1893-1953). Henri's best known paintings include: Snow in New York (1902, National Gallery, Washington DC) and Tam Gan (1914, Albright-Knox Art Gallery).

He was born Robert Henry Cozad in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of a professional gambler and businessman. In 1881 his father was indicted for manslaughter and a year later, the family fled to Atlantic City, New Jersey. His father was cleared of the crime but his name was ruined. To avoid further scandal he changed the family name to Henri. In 1886, Henri enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Thomas Pollock Anshutz (1851�), who himself had learned from American Realist Thomas Eakins (1844�). Henri also studied under Thomas Hovenden (1840㫷), a painter of domestic realistic scenes. In 1888 he travelled to Paris and enrolled at the Julian Academy, under the classical academic painter Adolphe-William Bouguereau (1825�), and Tony Robert-Fleury (1837�), known for his historical compositions and portraits. Although Henri was to reject many aspects of his academic training, from Bouguereau he learned the importance of designing the canvas as a whole in order to achieve a unified composition. He also adopted the academic technique of making rapid oil sketches (known as pochades) as preparatory studies for larger works. During the summers, like many artists before him, he painted in Brittany and Barbizon, and visited Italy to view its Antiquities and Renaissance masterpieces.

In 1891 he studied briefly at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts before returning to America and the Pennsylvania Academy. At the same time, he became an art teacher at the School of Design for Women, where he taught for three years. He continued to make regular trips to Paris, where he was particularly influenced by the work of Frans Hals (1580-1666), Edouard Manet (1832㫫), Goya (1746-1828) and Velazquez (1599�) in the Louvre. In 1899, his painting The Snow was purchased by the National Museum of Luxembourg, this was his first museum sale.

The Group of Eight and the Ashcan School

In Philadelphia, Henri began to attract a group of followers who met at his studio to discuss culture and aesthetics. They discussed the novels of Balzac, Tolstoy and Zola, marked by their powerful descriptions of the lives of the working class. Henri became convinced that art could be noble, on a par with writing, and could a meaningful tool for portraying the plight of the poor.

He shared this thought with four others, who were illustrators for The Philadelphia Press who became known as the 'Philadelphia Four': William Glackens, Everett Shinn, George Luks and John French Sloan. Henri met them all while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy. They were soon joined by Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson and Maurice Prendergast (1859-1924) and, together, became known as the Group of Eight. Their subject matter was the grit and dirt of cityscapes, in particular New York where they were based.

Henri's Snow in New York (1902, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC) is a wonderful example. He depicts New York's brownstone apartments hemmed in by faceless city blocks. The noise of the city is quietened by the newly fallen snow, which reveals grey slush and traffic ruts left by the horse and carts. The artist urged his students to reject the 'Ideal' and instead to focus on 'Reality'. This was the core of his individual contribution to American art. He promoted the idea that painting should spring from life, not from academic theories or classical aesthetics, and became a powerful influence in persuading young painters to capture the richness of urban reality, rather than rely on academic notions about art.

The Group of Eight held their first famous exhibition in 1908 at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. The work on display was diverse, only five of the artists were painting gritty urban scenes. There was no central organisation, in fact the first person to use the term 'ash can' was the cartoonist Art Young (1866-1943) in 1916. The term was later also applied to other artists such as Edward Hopper and George Bellows as they also portrayed city scenes. However Hopper rejected the classification, stating that his cityscapes had 'not a single incidental ashcan in sight'. All were unified however in their rejection of the genteelism of American Impressionism - see for instance works by Childe Hassam - which was more popular at the time. In contrast to the lightness of Impressionism, the Ashcan's canvasses were generally dark in tone, capturing fleeting but harsh elements of daily life. Prostitutes, boxing matches, drunks and overflowing tenements were common themes.

Henri is also known for his portrait paintings, which remained his primary form of expression. He built on the tradition of American Realism established by the great Thomas Eakins. His refusal to beautify his sitter beyond reality earned him the epithet the 'Manet of Manhattan'. In light of this, it's perhaps not surprising that his portraiture was not especially lucrative, and he was obliged to rely on teaching for his main income. His early portraits were dramatically dark, in the manner of Velazquez, Whistler and Manet - painted so as to impress juries at exhibitions. However, after the 1913 Armory Show, he took a trip to California which led to a period of great experimentation: his paintings took on a fresher, more modern look, as can be seen in Tam Gan (1914, Albright-Knox Art Gallery). By 1916, although no longer viewed as a forerunner of new developments, he continued to experiment with his painting. A masterpiece of this period is the life-size painting of Ruth St Denis, a dancer, painted in 1919. Between 1924 and 1928, he spent periods of time on Achill Island in Ireland, where he painted the local children as well as the local landscape. See also: Irish Art Guide.

In 1910 Henri organised the first Exhibition of Independent Artists and, in 1913, helped the Association of American Painters and Sculptors organise the Armory Show. This Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art became a seminal event in the history of American art. It introduced amazed New Yorkers - accustomed to realist art - to avant-garde art from Europe, including highly abstract works of Cubism and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst to American artists to free themselves from realism, and create their own independent artistic language. On the other hand, it also marked the point at which Henri's influence began to wane, although he continued to win awards and recognition.

From 1915 to 1927 he taught at the prestigious Art Students League, where he was a progressive and highly influential teacher. He continued to paint, displaying an interest in the works of Whistler and certain symbolist painters. He wrote and spoke about the American painters Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins, and the Europeans Velazquez and Manet. Henri's thoughts on art inspired his students, influenced later realist movements like American Scene Painting and Regionalism, and he continued to be quoted well into the 1980s, latterly by the graffiti artist Keith Haring (1958-90). Henri died in 1929. Two years later the Metropolitan Museum of Art held an exhibition in his honour.

Paintings by Robert Henri can be seen in many of the best art museums throughout the world.

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