¿Los ejércitos antiguos / medievales tenían música / cánticos para marchar?

¿Los ejércitos antiguos / medievales tenían música / cánticos para marchar?

Durante las batallas o al marchar hacia las batallas, ¿los ejércitos (como los ejércitos espartanos o de Europa del Este) tenían música / cánticos para marchar?


Como artículo de Historynet La musica de la guerra notas

La música ha sido una parte integral de la guerra y la vida del soldado desde los albores de la historia.… La función de la música en la guerra siempre ha sido doble: como medio de comunicación y como arma psicológica.

En Asia Menor, M.L.West, en la música griega antigua cita a Herodoto, quien

describe Alyattes ' Ejército de Lidia marchando [contra Mileto] con el variopinto sonido de auloi, flautas de pan y arpas.

En el caso de los griegos, hay varias fuentes que lo citan. Anne Margaret Wright en Estados de la ciudad, aunque señala que no sabemos exactamente cómo sonaba la música griega, dice:

Los griegos cantaron muchos tipos diferentes de canciones.. Algunas se cantaron en casa, otras en el escenario y otras cuando marcharon a la batalla ... Las canciones iban acompañadas de instrumentos de cuerda o viento.

M. L. West da más detalles:

El himno, que podría ser cualquier cosa, desde una breve solemnidad que consta de poco más que la fórmula Es decir, Paian, es decir, Paian, cantada al unísono, con una canción larga y elaborada ... fue cantado con frecuencia por soldados o marineros en momentos de exaltación, ya sea yendo a la batalla, o durante ella, o regresando triunfante de ella.

También cita varios ejemplos de fuentes antiguas:

Los pintores de vasijas corintias del siglo VII muestran a un flautista acompañando filas de guerreros en la lucha, y en el siglo V y más tarde, muchos autores atestiguan esto como el uso regular del ejército espartano. Tucídides describe los espartanos avanzan a la batalla 'lentamente, con la música de muchos gaiteros, como es su costumbre establecida, no por razones religiosas sino para que su acercamiento sea uniforme y rítmico y su línea no se rompa, como suele suceder con grandes fuerzas a medida que avanzan ''.

Hoplitas en batalla con flautista, del jarrón Chigi c650-640 BC

West también cita a Plutarch:

Cuando su línea de batalla estaba preparada, con el enemigo mirando, el rey mataba a la cabra niñera, ordenaba a todos que se pusieran coronas y les decía a los gaiteros que cantaran la melodía de Castor, mientras él daba la iniciativa. el himno de la marcha. Fue un espectáculo solemne y aterrador verlos, caminando al compás de la tubería, sin división en su línea y sin perturbación en sus espíritus, tranquila y alegremente siguiendo la música hacia un peligro mortal.

Nota: "El rey" aquí se refiere a uno de los reyes de Esparta que tradicionalmente dirigía al ejército espartano a la batalla. Sin embargo, también había otros comandantes que no eran reyes (por ejemplo, Lisandro, Brasidas).

Si ampliamos la definición de música, el canto ha sido durante mucho tiempo un medio de levantar la moral y / o infundir miedo en el enemigo y los griegos también lo usaron. En una ocasión (413 a. C.) durante la Guerra del Peloponeso, no tuvo el efecto deseado:

... un pequeño contingente argivo se unió a los refuerzos que los atenienses habían decidido enviar a Siracusa, donde su principal contribución parece haber sido hacer que los atenienses entraran en pánico mediante el uso del cántico de guerra dórico que los atenienses solían escuchar de sus enemigos.

Fuente: R.A. Tomlinson, Argos and the Argolid

En otros lugares, Historynet señala

Enemigos celtas de Roma... durante siglos cargaron, y luego marcharon, a la batalla acompañados de su propia variedad de cuernos, tambores y gaitas.

Del mismo modo, el artículo Práctica de trompeta y timbal de caballería desde la época de los celtas y romanos hasta el Renacimiento observa que

… los Británicos... comenzaron sus asaltos militares por burlarse del enemigo con cánticos y aullidos ensordecedores acompañados del toque de cuernos y trompetas.

Diodurus Siculus, escribiendo entre el 60 y el 30 a.C., describió el extraño carnyx de los galos: 'Sus trompetas son de naturaleza peculiar y como las que usan los bárbaros, pues cuando se tocan emiten un sonido áspero, apropiado al tumulto de guerra'." Fuente de texto e imagen: El Carnyx: una antigua trompeta de guerra

Los instrumentos musicales eran comunes en los ejércitos romanos, pero no siempre se usaban para marchar o incluso para hacer música. Como señala este artículo sobre los instrumentos de viento militares romanos, los instrumentos musicales se usaban regularmente para la comunicación (como también fue el caso en otros ejércitos en otras ocasiones):

Músicos militares en el Ejercito romano eran centuriones superiores, el rango más alto de suboficiales, lo que indica el importante papel que desempeñaban los instrumentos musicales en la comunicación militar. Trompetas, cornu y buccina se usaban para hacer sonar la alarma, para señalar el ataque, la retirada y los cambios de formación durante la batalla, para anunciar los cambios de guardia, y se tocaban para proporcionar acompañamiento a los soldados mientras marchaban.

Para los romanos, los gritos de guerra eran comunes, pero solo en ciertos momentos:

Como todos los pueblos de la antigüedad, Las tropas romanas usaron gritos de guerra para asustar al enemigo, demostrar fuerza y ​​entusiasmo, y aumentar la determinación individual y colectiva, pero las demandas de disciplina y cohesión táctica requerían que ejercitaran la moderación ... los gritos de batalla solo se permitían inmediatamente antes o después de enfrentarse al enemigo a corta distancia ... Esta práctica está documentado durante el Principado ... En la Antigüedad Tardía, los tratados tácticos continúan recomendando procedimientos similares

Los romanos, al parecer, también aprendieron de sus enemigos:

En el siglo IV d.C., La infantería romana favoreció el barritus, un grito de guerra de origen germánico, aparentemente imitado de una costumbre marcial prevaleciente entre los auxilia palatina del este del Rin. Comenzó como un murmullo bajo y gradualmente creció hasta convertirse en un fuerte rugido.

Volviendo a la época medieval, la música no parece haber sido utilizada en el campo de batalla durante la primera mitad de la Edad Media. Los cruzados iban a cambiar esto, sin embargo, después de sus encuentros con los sarracenos. Refiriéndose al Sarracenos en 1191, los Itinerario Regis Ricardi dice:

Al frente llegaron algunos de sus almirantes, como era su deber, con clarines y trompetas; algunos tenían cuernos, otros flautas y panderos, gongs, platillos y otros instrumentos, produciendo un ruido y un clamor horrible. La tierra vibraba por los ruidos fuertes y discordantes, de modo que el estruendo del trueno no podía oírse en medio del tumultuoso ruido de cuernos y trompetas. Hicieron esto para excitar su espíritu y coraje, porque cuanto más violento se volvía el clamor, más audaces eran para la refriega.

Citado en Música militar, que lo atribuye incorrectamente a Godofredo de Vinsauf.

Se podría argumentar que 'un ruido y un clamor horribles' no califica como música, pero los cruzados notaron su efectividad e introdujeron la idea en la Europa medieval:

Impresionado por el uso de bandas militares por parte de los sarracenos como un medio de transmitir instantáneamente órdenes a formaciones distantes y como un arma de miedo y refriega, como lo expresó Bartholomaeus Anglicus en el siglo XIII, el Caballeros cristianos pronto los emuló. Entre los instrumentos sarracenos adaptados estaban los anafil, una trompeta recta y sin válvulas; el tabor, un pequeño tambor, a veces atrapado; y thenaker, un timbal pequeño y redondo, generalmente desplegado en parejas.

Batalla de Dornach (1499), parte de una xilografía contemporánea. Tenga en cuenta el instrumento de viento en el lado izquierdo.

Al igual que con los romanos, hay que tener cuidado de asumir el uso de instrumentos musicales en la Edad Media únicamente en relación con la marcha. Por ejemplo,

Los tambores militares europeos se usaron de muchas maneras, desde desmoralizar al enemigo, establecer parlamentos, comunicación entre dos bandos en guerra, comunicación militar entre filas, simulacros, ceremonias militares y música de honor.

Incluso con la llegada de los instrumentos musicales, los gritos de guerra o los cánticos siguieron siendo de uso común en la Europa medieval. Ejemplos incluyen

el 'Hui hui' de los magiares. Los gritos de guerra solían dirigirse a los santos: el inglés "St George", el francés "St Denis".

Fuente: The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare, J. Bradbury (ed.)


Retrocediendo más en el tiempo

Primeras aplicaciones de la trompeta

La cultura militar de la civilización primitiva utilizó instrumentos con el propósito de conducir la guerra. En casi todas las culturas se documentan especímenes de antiguos dispositivos tipo trompeta, incluidos los de los antiguos egipcios, asirios, israelitas, griegos, etruscos, romanos, tribus teutónicas, celtas y culturas asiáticas. Estos instrumentos se utilizaron para funciones ceremoniales religiosas como dispositivos de señalización militar. (Edward Tarr, The Trumpet (Portland: Amadeus Press, 1988) pág.20)


Grito de batalla

A grito de batalla es un grito o cántico que se retoma en la batalla, generalmente por miembros del mismo grupo combatiente. Los gritos de batalla no son necesariamente articulados (por ejemplo, "Eulaliaaaa!", "Alala" ...), aunque a menudo apuntan a invocar sentimientos patrióticos o religiosos. Su propósito es una combinación de despertar la agresión y el espíritu de cuerpo de uno mismo y causar intimidación en el lado hostil. Los gritos de batalla son una forma universal de comportamiento de exhibición (es decir, exhibición de amenaza) que apunta a una ventaja competitiva, idealmente exagerando el propio potencial agresivo hasta un punto en el que el enemigo prefiere evitar la confrontación por completo y opta por huir. Para exagerar el potencial de agresión de uno, los gritos de batalla deben ser lo más fuertes posible y, históricamente, a menudo han sido amplificados por dispositivos acústicos como cuernos, tambores, caracolas, carnyxes, gaitas, cornetas, etc. (ver también música marcial). .

Los gritos de batalla están estrechamente relacionados con otros patrones de comportamiento de agresión humana, como las danzas de guerra y las burlas, realizadas durante la fase de "calentamiento" que precede a la escalada de violencia física. A partir de la Edad Media, aparecieron muchos gritos en las normas y fueron adoptados como lemas, siendo un ejemplo el lema "Dieu et mon droit" ("Dios y mi derecho") de los reyes ingleses. Se dice que este fue el grito de guerra de Eduardo III durante la Batalla de Crécy. La palabra "lema" deriva originalmente de Sluagh-Gairm o sluagh-ghairm (sluagh = "pueblo", "ejército" y gairm = "llamada", "proclamación"), la palabra gaélica escocesa para "grito de reunión" y en tiempos de guerra para "grito de batalla". La palabra gaélica se tomó prestada al inglés como slughorn, perezoso, "slogum" y eslogan.


Contenido

Los vir triumphalis Editar

En la Roma republicana, los logros militares verdaderamente excepcionales merecieron los más altos honores posibles, que conectaron el vir triumphalis ("hombre de triunfo", más tarde conocido como triunfo) al pasado mítico y semimítico de Roma. En efecto, el general estuvo cerca de ser "rey por un día", y posiblemente cerca de la divinidad. Vestía las insignias tradicionalmente asociadas tanto con la antigua monarquía romana como con la estatua de Júpiter Capitolino: la "toga picta" morada y dorada, la corona de laurel, las botas rojas y, de nuevo, posiblemente, el rostro pintado de rojo de la deidad suprema de Roma. Fue llevado en procesión por la ciudad en un carro de cuatro caballos, bajo la mirada de sus compañeros y una multitud que aplaudía, hasta el templo de Júpiter Capitolino. El botín y los cautivos de su victoria marcaron el camino que siguieron sus ejércitos. Una vez en el templo Capitolino, sacrificó dos bueyes blancos a Júpiter y puso a los pies de Júpiter muestras de su victoria, dedicando su victoria al Senado romano, al pueblo y a los dioses. [1]

Los triunfos no estaban ligados a ningún día, estación o fiesta religiosa en particular del calendario romano. La mayoría parece haberse celebrado en la primera oportunidad posible, probablemente en días que se consideraron propicios para la ocasión. La tradición requería que, mientras durara un triunfo, todos los templos estuvieran abiertos. Por tanto, la ceremonia fue compartida, en cierto sentido, por toda la comunidad de dioses romanos, [2] pero las superposiciones eran inevitables con festivales y aniversarios específicos. Algunos pueden haber sido una coincidencia que otros fueron diseñados. Por ejemplo, el 1 de marzo, el festival y muere natalis del dios de la guerra Marte, fue el aniversario tradicional del primer triunfo de Publicola (504 a. C.), de otros seis triunfos republicanos y del primer triunfo romano de Rómulo. [3] Pompeyo pospuso su tercer y más magnífico triunfo durante varios meses para que coincidiera con el suyo. muere natalis (cumpleaños). [4] [5]

Dejando a un lado las dimensiones religiosas, el foco del triunfo fue el propio general. La ceremonia lo ascendió, aunque temporalmente, por encima de todos los romanos mortales. Esta fue una oportunidad otorgada a muy pocos. Desde la época de Escipión Africano, el general triunfal estuvo vinculado (al menos para los historiadores durante el Principado) con Alejandro y el semidiós Hércules, que habían trabajado desinteresadamente en beneficio de toda la humanidad. [6] [7] [8] Su suntuosa carroza triunfal estaba adornada con encantos contra la posible envidia (invidia) y malicia de los espectadores. [9] [10] En algunos relatos, un compañero o esclavo público le recordaba de vez en cuando su propia mortalidad (un memento mori). [11]

La procesión Editar

Los primeros "triunfos" de Roma fueron probablemente simples desfiles de la victoria, celebrando el regreso de un general victorioso y su ejército a la ciudad, junto con los frutos de su victoria, y terminando con alguna forma de dedicación a los dioses. Esto es probablemente así para los primeros triunfos legendarios y posteriores semilegendarios de la era real de Roma, cuando el rey funcionaba como el magistrado y líder de guerra más alto de Roma. A medida que aumentaba la población, el poder, la influencia y el territorio de Roma, también aumentaba la escala, la longitud, la variedad y la extravagancia de sus procesiones triunfales.

La procesión (pompa) reunidos en el espacio abierto del Campus Martius (Campo de Marte) probablemente mucho antes del amanecer. A partir de ahí, dejando de lado todos los retrasos y accidentes imprevistos, habría logrado un paso lento en el mejor de los casos, salpicado por varias paradas planificadas en el camino hacia su destino final, el templo Capitolino, una distancia de poco menos de 4 km (2,48 millas). Las procesiones triunfales eran notoriamente largas y lentas [12], las más largas podían durar dos o tres días, y posiblemente más, y algunas pueden haber sido más largas que la ruta misma. [13]

Algunas fuentes antiguas y modernas sugieren un orden procesional bastante estándar. Primero vinieron los líderes, aliados y soldados cautivos (ya veces sus familias) que generalmente caminaban encadenados, algunos estaban destinados a ser ejecutados o exhibidos. Sus armas capturadas, armaduras, oro, plata, estatuas y tesoros curiosos o exóticos fueron transportados detrás de ellos, junto con pinturas, cuadros y modelos que representan lugares y episodios importantes de la guerra. Seguían en la fila, todos a pie, los senadores y magistrados de Roma, seguidos por los lictores del general con sus túnicas de guerra rojas, sus fasces coronadas de laurel, y luego el general en su carro de cuatro caballos. Un compañero, o un esclavo público, podría compartir el carro con él o, en algunos casos, con sus hijos más pequeños. Sus oficiales e hijos mayores cabalgaban cerca. Sus soldados desarmados lo seguían con togas y coronas de laurel, cantando "io triumphe!" y cantando canciones obscenas a expensas de su general. En algún lugar de la procesión, dos bueyes blancos impecables fueron llevados para el sacrificio a Júpiter, ataviados con guirnaldas y con cuernos dorados. Todo esto se hizo con el acompañamiento de música, nubes de incienso y el esparcimiento de flores. [14]

Casi nada se sabe de la infraestructura y la gestión de la procesión. Sin duda, su enorme costo fue sufragado en parte por el estado, pero sobre todo por el botín del general, en el que la mayoría de las fuentes antiguas abordan con gran detalle y superlativos inverosímiles. Una vez eliminada, esta riqueza portátil inyectó enormes sumas en la economía romana, la cantidad aportada por el triunfo de Octavio sobre Egipto provocó una caída en las tasas de interés y un fuerte aumento en los precios de la tierra. [15] Ninguna fuente antigua aborda la logística de la procesión: donde los soldados y los cautivos, en una procesión de varios días, podrían haber dormido y comido, o donde estos varios miles más los espectadores podrían haber estado apostados para la ceremonia final en el Templo Capitolino. [dieciséis]

La ruta Editar

El siguiente esquema es para la ruta tomada por "algunos o muchos" triunfos, y se basa en reconstrucciones modernas estándar. [17] Cualquier ruta original o tradicional se habría desviado hasta cierto punto por las numerosas remodelaciones y reconstrucciones de la ciudad, o en ocasiones por elección propia. El lugar de partida (el Campus Martius) estaba fuera del límite sagrado de la ciudad (pomerio), bordeando la orilla oriental del Tíber. La procesión entró en la ciudad a través de un Porta Triumphalis (Puerta del Triunfo), [18] y cruzó la pomerio, donde el general entregó su mando al senado y magistrados. Continuó a través del sitio del Circo Flaminius, bordeando la base sur de la Colina Capitolina y el Velabrum, a lo largo de un Vía Triumphalis (Camino Triunfal) [19] hacia el Circo Máximo, quizás dejando a los prisioneros destinados a ser ejecutados en el Tullianum. [20] Entró en el Vía Sacra luego el Foro. Finalmente, ascendió por la Colina Capitolina hasta el Templo de Júpiter Capitolino. Una vez terminados el sacrificio y las dedicatorias, la procesión y los espectadores se dispersaron para banquetes, juegos y otros entretenimientos auspiciados por el general triunfante.

Banquetes, juegos y entretenimientos Editar

En la mayoría de los triunfos, el general financió los banquetes posteriores a la procesión con su parte del botín. Hubo fiestas para el pueblo y fiestas separadas mucho más ricas para la élite, algunas se prolongaron durante la mayor parte de la noche. Dionisio ofrece un contraste con los fastuosos banquetes triunfales de su tiempo al darle al triunfo de Romulus el "banquete" más primitivo posible: los romanos ordinarios prepararon las mesas de comida como una "bienvenida a casa" y las tropas que regresaron bebiendo tragos y mordiscos mientras pasaban. . Recrea el primer banquete triunfal republicano en la misma línea. [21] Varro afirma que su tía ganó 20.000 sestercios al suministrar 5.000 tordos para el triunfo de Cecilio Metelo en el 71 a. C. [22]

Algunos triunfos incluyeron ludi como cumplimiento del voto del general a un dios o diosa, hecho antes de la batalla o durante su calor, a cambio de su ayuda para asegurar la victoria. [23] En la República, los pagaba el general triunfante. Marcus Fulvius Nobilior juró ludi a cambio de la victoria sobre la Liga Etolia y pagó diez días de juegos en su triunfo.

Conmemoración Editar

La mayoría de los romanos nunca hubieran visto un triunfo, pero su simbolismo impregnaba la imaginación y la cultura material romanas. Los generales triunfales acuñaron y distribuyeron monedas de alto valor para propagar su fama triunfal y su generosidad por todo el imperio. Los problemas de Pompeyo por sus tres triunfos son típicos. Uno es un aureus (una moneda de oro) que tiene un borde de laurel que encierra una cabeza que personifica a África al lado, el título de Pompeyo "Magnus" ("El Grande"), con varita y jarra como símbolos de su augurio. El reverso lo identifica como procónsul en un carro triunfal al que asistió Victoria. Un denario triunfal (una moneda de plata) muestra sus tres trofeos de brazos capturados, con su varita de augur y su jarra. Otro muestra un globo rodeado de coronas triunfales, que simboliza su "conquista mundial", y una espiga de grano para mostrar que su victoria protegió el suministro de grano de Roma. [24]

En la tradición republicana, se esperaba que un general usara sus insignias triunfales solo para el día de su triunfo a partir de entonces, presumiblemente se exhibieron en el atrio de la casa de su familia. Como miembro de la nobleza, tenía derecho a un tipo particular de funeral en el que una serie de actores caminaban detrás de su féretro con las máscaras de sus antepasados, otro actor representó al propio general y su mayor logro en la vida al usar su máscara funeraria, triunfal. laureles, y toga picta. [25] Algo más era profundamente sospechoso a Pompeyo se le concedió el privilegio de llevar su corona de triunfo en el Circo, pero se encontró con una recepción hostil. [26] La inclinación de Julio César por llevar su atuendo triunfal "donde y cuando sea" fue tomada como uno de los muchos signos de intenciones monárquicas que, para algunos, justificaron su asesinato. En la era imperial, los emperadores usaban tales insignias para significar su rango y cargo elevados y para identificarse con los dioses romanos y el orden imperial, una característica central del culto imperial.

La construcción y la dedicación de obras públicas monumentales ofrecieron oportunidades locales y permanentes para la conmemoración triunfal. En el 55 a. C., Pompeyo inauguró el primer teatro construido en piedra de Roma como un regalo al pueblo de Roma, financiado con su botín. Su galería y columnatas se duplicaron como un espacio de exhibición y probablemente contenían estatuas, pinturas y otros trofeos llevados en sus diversos triunfos. [27] Contenía un nuevo templo para la diosa protectora de Pompeyo Venus Victrix ("Venus Victoriosa") el año anterior, había emitido una moneda que la mostraba coronada con laureles triunfales. [28] Julio César reclamó a Venus como patrona y antepasado divino. Él financió un nuevo templo para ella y lo dedicó durante su triunfo cuádruple del 46 a. C. De este modo, entrelazó a su diosa patrona y su presunta antecesora en su aniversario triunfal.

Augusto, el heredero de César y primer emperador de Roma, construyó un vasto monumento triunfal en la costa griega en Actium, con vistas al escenario de su decisiva batalla naval contra Antonio y Egipto, los picos de bronce de los buques de guerra egipcios capturados se proyectaban desde su muro hacia el mar. La iconografía imperial identificaba cada vez más a los emperadores con los dioses, comenzando con la reinvención augusta de Roma como una monarquía virtual (el principado). Los paneles esculpidos en el arco de Tito (construido por Domiciano) celebran el triunfo conjunto de Tito y Vespasiano sobre los judíos después del asedio de Jerusalén, con una procesión triunfal de cautivos y tesoros incautados del templo de Jerusalén, algunos de los cuales financiaron la construcción de el Coliseo. Otro panel muestra el funeral y la apoteosis del deificado Tito. Antes de esto, el senado votó a Tito con un arco triple en el Circo Máximo para celebrar o conmemorar la misma victoria o triunfo. [29]

En la tradición republicana, solo el Senado podía otorgar un triunfo. Un general que quisiera un triunfo enviaría su solicitud e informaría al Senado. Oficialmente, los triunfos se otorgaron por méritos militares sobresalientes que el estado pagaba por la ceremonia si se cumplían esta y otras condiciones, y estas parecen haber variado de vez en cuando y de un caso a otro, o el Senado pagaría la procesión oficial. , por lo menos. La mayoría de los historiadores romanos descansan el resultado en un debate y voto senatorial abierto, su legalidad confirmada por una de las asambleas populares, el senado y el pueblo así controlaba las arcas del estado y recompensaba o frenaba a sus generales. Algunos triunfos parecen haber sido otorgados directamente, con un debate mínimo. Algunos fueron rechazados, pero siguieron adelante de todos modos, con el llamamiento directo del general a la gente del Senado y una promesa de juegos públicos a sus expensas. Otros fueron bloqueados o concedidos sólo después de interminables disputas. Tanto los senadores como los generales eran políticos, y la política romana era conocida por sus rivalidades, alianzas cambiantes, tratos clandestinos y sobornos públicos abiertos. [30] Las discusiones del Senado probablemente habrían dependido de la tradición triunfal, los precedentes y el decoro menos abiertamente pero más ansiosamente, dependerían del alcance de los poderes políticos y militares y de la popularidad del general, y las posibles consecuencias de apoyar o obstaculizar su futuro. carrera profesional. No hay evidencia firme de que el Senado haya aplicado un conjunto prescrito de "leyes triunfales" al tomar sus decisiones, [31] [32] aunque Valerius Maximus afirma que un triunfo solo podría otorgarse a un general victorioso que hubiera matado al menos a 5,000 del enemigo en una sola batalla. [33]

Durante el Principado, los triunfos se politizaron más como manifestaciones de autoridad y legitimidad imperial.

Ovación Editar

A un general se le puede conceder un "triunfo menor", conocido como Ovación. Entró en la ciudad a pie, sin sus tropas, con su toga de magistrado y una corona de mirto de Venus. En 211 a. C., el Senado rechazó la solicitud de triunfo de Marco Marcelo después de su victoria sobre los cartagineses y sus aliados siciliano-griegos, aparentemente porque su ejército todavía estaba en Sicilia y no podía unirse a él. En cambio, le ofrecieron una acción de gracias (suplicatio) y una ovación. El día anterior celebró un triunfo no oficial en el monte Alban. Su ovación fue de proporciones triunfales. Incluía una gran pintura, que mostraba su asedio a Siracusa, las propias máquinas de asedio, placas capturadas, oro, plata y ornamentos reales, y las estatuas y muebles opulentos por los que Siracusa era famosa. En la procesión fueron conducidos ocho elefantes, símbolo de su victoria sobre los cartagineses. Sus aliados españoles y siracusanos abrieron el camino con coronas de oro y se les concedió la ciudadanía romana y tierras en Sicilia. [34]

En 71 a. C., Craso se ganó una ovación por sofocar la revuelta de Espartaco y aumentó sus honores al llevar una corona de laurel "triunfal" de Júpiter. [35] Las ovaciones se enumeran junto con los triunfos en el Fasti triunfales.

los Fasti triunfales (también llamado Acta Triumphalia) son tablas de piedra que se erigieron en el Foro Romano alrededor del año 12 a. C., durante el reinado del emperador Augusto. Dan el nombre formal del general, los nombres de su padre y abuelo, el pueblo (s) o provincia de mando donde se otorgó el triunfo y la fecha de la procesión triunfal. Registran más de 200 triunfos, comenzando con tres triunfos míticos de Rómulo en 753 a. C. y terminando con el de Lucius Cornelius Balbus (19 a. C.). [36] Fragmentos de fecha y estilo similares de Roma y la Italia provincial parecen estar modelados en el Augustan Fasti, y se han utilizado para llenar algunos de sus vacíos. [37]

Muchos relatos históricos antiguos también mencionan triunfos. La mayoría de los relatos romanos de triunfos se escribieron para proporcionar a sus lectores una lección moral, en lugar de proporcionar una descripción precisa del proceso triunfal, la procesión, los ritos y su significado. Esta escasez solo permite la reconstrucción más tentativa y generalizada (y posiblemente engañosa) de la ceremonia triunfal, basada en la combinación de varios relatos incompletos de diferentes períodos de la historia romana.

Orígenes y era regia Editar

Los orígenes y el desarrollo de este honor son oscuros. Los historiadores romanos situaron el primer triunfo en el pasado mítico, algunos pensaron que databa de la fundación de Roma, otros lo consideraron más antiguo que eso. Los etimólogos romanos pensaban que el canto de los soldados de triunfo fue un préstamo vía etrusca del griego thriambus (θρίαμβος), gritado por sátiros y otros asistentes en procesiones dionisíacas y báquicas. [38] Plutarco y algunas fuentes romanas rastrearon el primer triunfo romano y el atuendo "real" de la triunfo al primer rey de Roma, Rómulo, cuya derrota del rey Acron de los caeninenses se pensó que era coetánea de la fundación de Roma en 753 a. C. [39] Ovidio proyectó un precedente triunfal fabuloso y poético en el regreso del dios Baco / Dioniso de su conquista de la India, tirado en un carro dorado por tigres y rodeado de ménades, sátiros y una variedad de borrachos. [40] [41] [42] Arriano atribuyó elementos dionisíacos y "romanos" similares a una procesión de la victoria de Alejandro Magno. [43] Como gran parte de la cultura romana, los elementos del triunfo se basaron en precursores etruscos y griegos en particular, el púrpura bordado toga picta Se pensaba que la que llevaba el general triunfal se derivaba de la toga real de los reyes etruscos de Roma.

Para los triunfos de la era real romana, el Imperio superviviente Fasti triunfales están incompletas. Después de tres entradas para el legendario fundador de la ciudad, Romulus, faltan once líneas de la lista. Los siguientes en secuencia son Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, y finalmente Tarquin "el orgulloso", el último rey. los Fasti fueron compilados unos cinco siglos después de la era real y probablemente representan una versión oficial aprobada de varias tradiciones históricas diferentes. Del mismo modo, las primeras historias escritas que sobreviven de la era real, escritas algunos siglos después, intentan reconciliar varias tradiciones o, si no, debatir sus méritos. Dioniso, por ejemplo, le da a Rómulo tres triunfos, el mismo número dado en el Fasti. Livy no le da ninguno, y en cambio le atribuye el primer spolia opima, en el que las armas y la armadura fueron despojadas de un enemigo derrotado y luego dedicadas a Júpiter. Plutarco le da uno, completo con carro. Tarquin tiene dos triunfos en el Fasti pero ninguno en Dionisio. [44] Ninguna fuente antigua da un triunfo al sucesor de Romulus, el pacífico rey Numa.

La República Editar

Los aristócratas de Roma expulsaron a su último rey por tirano y eliminaron la monarquía por ley. Compartieron entre ellos los poderes y la autoridad anteriores de la realeza en forma de magistraturas. En la República, la magistratura más alta posible era un consulado electo, que no podía durar más de un año a la vez. En tiempos de crisis o emergencia, el Senado podría nombrar a un dictador para servir por un período más largo, pero esto podría parecer peligrosamente cercano al poder vitalicio de los reyes. El dictador Camilo obtuvo cuatro triunfos, pero finalmente fue exiliado. Fuentes romanas posteriores apuntan a su triunfo de 396 a. C. como causa de ofensa: el carro fue tirado por cuatro caballos blancos, una combinación reservada propiamente para Júpiter y Apolo, al menos en la tradición y la poesía posteriores. [45] El comportamiento de un general republicano triunfal habría sido examinado de cerca por sus pares aristocráticos, así como los símbolos que empleó en su triunfo estarían alerta a cualquier señal de que pudiera aspirar a ser más que "rey de un día".

En la República Media y Tardía, la expansión de Roma a través de la conquista ofreció a sus aventureros político-militares oportunidades extraordinarias para la auto publicidad. La prolongada serie de guerras entre Roma y Cartago, las Guerras Púnicas, produjo doce triunfos en diez años. Hacia el final de la República, los triunfos se volvieron aún más frecuentes, [46] fastuosos y competitivos, con cada exhibición un intento (generalmente exitoso) de superar a la anterior. Tener un antepasado triunfal, incluso uno muerto hace mucho tiempo, contaba mucho en la sociedad y la política romanas, y Cicerón comentó que, en la carrera por el poder y la influencia, algunos individuos no estaban por encima de investir a un antepasado inconvenientemente ordinario con grandeza y dignidad triunfales. , distorsionando una tradición histórica ya fragmentaria y poco confiable. [47] [48] [49]

Para los historiadores romanos, el crecimiento de la ostentación triunfal socavó las antiguas "virtudes campesinas" de Roma. [50] Dionisio de Halicarnaso (c. 60 a. C. hasta después del 7 a. C.) afirmó que los triunfos de su época se habían "apartado en todos los aspectos de la antigua tradición de frugalidad". [51] Los moralistas se quejaron de que las guerras extranjeras exitosas podrían haber aumentado el poder, la seguridad y la riqueza de Roma, pero también crearon y alimentaron un apetito degenerado por el despliegue grandilocuente y la novedad superficial. Livio remonta el comienzo de la podredumbre al triunfo de Cneo Manlius Vulso en 186, que introdujo a los romanos ordinarios a las frivolidades gálatas como cocineros especializados, chicas flautistas y otras "entretenimientos seductores para cenas". Plinio agrega "aparadores y mesas con una sola pierna" a la lista, [52] pero responsabiliza por el deslizamiento de Roma hacia el lujo en las "1400 libras de artículos de plata perseguida y 1500 libras de vasijas de oro" traídas algo antes por Escipión Asiático para su triunfo. de 189 a. C. [53]

Los tres triunfos otorgados a Pompeyo el Grande fueron generosos y controvertidos. The first in 80 or 81 BCE was for his victory over King Hiarbas of Numidia in 79 BCE, granted by a cowed and divided Senate under the dictatorship of Pompey's patron Sulla. Pompey was only 24 and a mere equestrian. [54] Roman conservatives disapproved of such precocity [55] but others saw his youthful success as the mark of a prodigious military talent, divine favour, and personal brio and he also had an enthusiastic, popular following. His triumph, however, did not go quite to plan. His chariot was drawn by a team of elephants in order to represent his African conquest – and perhaps to outdo even the legendary triumph of Bacchus. They proved too bulky to pass through the triumphal gate, so Pompey had to dismount while a horse team was yoked in their place. [56] This embarrassment would have delighted his critics, and probably some of his soldiers — whose demands for cash had been near-mutinous. [57] Even so, his firm stand on the matter of cash raised his standing among the conservatives, and Pompey seems to have learned a lesson in populist politics. For his second triumph (71 BCE, the last in a series of four held that year) his cash gifts to his army were said to break all records, though the amounts in Plutarch's account are implausibly high: 6,000 sestercios to each soldier (about six times their annual pay) and about 5 million to each officer. [58]

Pompey was granted a third triumph in 61 BCE to celebrate his victory over Mithridates VI of Pontus. It was an opportunity to outdo all rivals — and even himself. Triumphs traditionally lasted for one day, but Pompey's went on for two in an unprecedented display of wealth and luxury. [59] Plutarch claimed that this triumph represented Pompey's domination over the entire world – on Rome's behalf – and an achievement to outshine even Alexander's. [60] [61] Pliny's narrative of this triumph dwells with ominous hindsight upon a gigantic portrait-bust of the triumphant general, a thing of "eastern splendor" entirely covered with pearls, anticipating his later humiliation and decapitation. [62]

Imperial era Edit

Following Caesar's murder, Octavian assumed permanent title of imperator and became permanent head of the Senate from 27 BCE (see principate) under the title and name Augustus. Only the year before, he had blocked the senatorial award of a triumph to Marcus Licinius Crassus the Younger, despite the latter's acclamation in the field as Imperator and his fulfillment of all traditional, Republican qualifying criteria except full consulship. Technically, generals in the Imperial era were legates of the ruling Emperor (Imperator). [63] Augustus claimed the victory as his own but permitted Crassus a second, which is listed on the Fasti for 27 BCE. [64] Crassus was also denied the rare (and technically permissible, in his case) honour of dedicating the spolia opima of this campaign to Jupiter Feretrius. [sesenta y cinco]

The last triumph listed on the Fasti Triumphales is for 19 BCE. By then, the triumph had been absorbed into the Augustan Imperial cult system, in which only the emperor [66] would be accorded such a supreme honour, as he was the supreme Imperator. The Senate, in true Republican style, would have held session to debate and decide the merits of the candidate but this was little more than good form. Augustan ideology insisted that Augustus had saved and restored the Republic, and it celebrated his triumph as a permanent condition, and his military, political, and religious leadership as responsible for an unprecedented era of stability, peace, and prosperity. From then on, emperors claimed – without seeming to claim – the triumph as an Imperial privilege. Those outside the Imperial family might be granted "triumphal ornaments" (Ornamenta triumphalia) or an ovation, such as Aulus Plautius under Claudius. The senate still debated and voted on such matters, though the outcome was probably already decided. [67] In the Imperial era, the number of triumphs fell sharply. [68]

Imperial panegyrics of the later Imperial era combine triumphal elements with Imperial ceremonies such as the consular investiture of Emperors, and the adventus, the formal "triumphal" arrival of an emperor in the various capitals of the Empire in his progress through the provinces. Some emperors were perpetually on the move and seldom or never went to Rome. [69] Christian emperor Constantius II entered Rome for the first time in his life in 357, several years after defeating his rival Magnentius, standing in his triumphal chariot "as if he were a statue". [70] Theodosius I celebrated his victory over the usurper Magnus Maximus in Rome on June 13, 389. [71] Claudian's panegyric to Emperor Honorius records the last known official triumph in the city of Rome and the western Empire. [72] [73] Emperor Honorius celebrated it conjointly with his sixth consulship on January 1, 404 his general Stilicho had defeated Visigothic King Alaric at the battles of Pollentia and Verona. [74] In Christian martyrology, Saint Telemachus was martyred by a mob while attempting to stop the customary gladiatorial games at this triumph, and gladiatorial games (munera gladiatoria) were banned in consequence. [75] [76] [77] In AD 438, however, the western emperor Valentinian III found cause to repeat the ban, which indicates that it was not always enforced. [78]

In 534, well into the Byzantine era, Justinian I awarded general Belisarius a triumph that included some "radically new" Christian and Byzantine elements. Belisarius successfully campaigned against his adversary Vandal leader Gelimer to restore the former Roman province of Africa to the control of Byzantium in the 533-534 Vandalic War. The triumph was held in the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople. Historian Procopius, an eyewitness who had previously been in Belisarius's service, describes the procession's display of the loot seized from the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE by Roman Emperor Titus, including the Temple Menorah. The treasure had been stored in Rome's Temple of Peace after its display in Titus' own triumphal parade and its depiction on his triumphal arch then it was seized by the Vandals during their sack of Rome in 455 then it was taken from them in Belisarius' campaign. The objects themselves might well have recalled the ancient triumphs of Vespasian and his son Titus but Belisarius and Gelimer walked, as in an ovation. The procession did not end at Rome's Capitoline Temple with a sacrifice to Jupiter, but terminated at Hippodrome of Constantinople with a recitation of Christian prayer and the triumphant generals prostrate before the emperor. [79]


Early medieval music ( -1150)

Early chant traditions

Chant (or plainsong) is a monophonic sacred form which represents the earliest known music of the Christian church. The Jewish Synagogue tradition of singing psalms was a strong influence on Christian chanting.

Chant developed separately in several European centres. The most important were Rome, Spain, Gaul, Milan, and Ireland. These chants were all developed to support the regional liturgies used when celebrating the Mass there. Each area developed its own chants and rules for celebration. In Spain, Mozarabic chant was used and shows the influence of North African music. The Mozarabic liturgy even survived through Muslim rule, though this was an isolated strand and this music was later suppressed in an attempt to enforce conformity on the entire liturgy. In Milan, Ambrosian chant, named after St. Ambrose, was the standard, while Beneventan chant developed around Benevento, another Italian liturgical centre. Gallican chant was used in Gaul, and Celtic chant in Ireland and Great Britain.

Around 1011 AD, the Roman Catholic Church wanted to standardize the Mass and chant. At this time, Rome was the religious centre of western Europe, and Paris was the political centre. The standardization effort consisted mainly of combining these two ( Roman and Gallican) regional liturgies. This body of chant became known as Gregorian Chant. By the 12th and 13th centuries, Gregorian chant had superseded all the other Western chant traditions, with the exception of the Ambrosian chant in Milan, and the Mozarabic chant in a few specially designated Spanish chapels.

Gregorian chant

A doctrinally unified version which came together from under the supervision of Rome in approximately the ninth century was called Gregorian chant, a type of plainsong that was central to the musical tradition of Europe in the Medieval era. The actual melodies that make up the repertory probably come from several sources, some as far back as the pontificate of Gregory the Great himself (c. 590&ndash 604). Many of them were probably written in the politically stable, relatively literate setting of western monasteries during the reign of Charlemagne.

The earliest surviving sources of chant showing musical notation are from the early ninth century, though the consistency of the music across a wide area implies that some form of chant notation, now lost, may have existed earlier than this. It should be noted that music notation existed in the ancient world&ndashfor example Greece&ndashbut the ability to read and write this notation was lost around the fifth century, as was all of the music that went with it.

To what extent the music of the Gregorian chant represents a survival of the music of the ancient world is much debated by scholars, but certainly there must have been some influence, if only from the music of the synagogue. Only the smallest of scraps of ancient music have survived (for instance, the Seikilos epitaph), but those that have show an unsurprising similarity of mode, shape and phrase conception to later Western music.

Chant survived and prospered in monasteries and religious centres throughout the chaotic years of the early middle ages, for these were the places of greatest stability and literacy. Most developments in western classical music are either related to, or directly descended from, procedures first seen in chant and its earliest elaborations.

Early polyphony: organum

Around the end of the ninth century, singers in monasteries such as St. Gall in Switzerland began experimenting with adding another part to the chant, generally a voice in parallel motion, singing in mostly perfect fourths or fifths with the original tune (see interval). This development is called organum, and represents the beginnings of harmony and, ultimately, counterpoint. Over the next several centuries organum developed in several ways.

The most significant was the creation of "florid organum" around 1100, sometimes known as the school of St. Martial (named after a monastery in south-central France, which contains the best-preserved manuscript of this repertory). In "florid organum" the original tune would be sung in long notes while an accompanying voice would sing many notes to each one of the original, often in a highly elaborate fashion, all the while emphasizing the perfect consonances (fourths, fifths and octaves) as in the earlier organa. Later developments of organum occurred in England, where the interval of the third was particularly favoured, and where organa were likely improvised against an existing chant melody, and at Notre Dame in Paris, which was to be the centre of musical creative activity throughout the thirteenth century.

Much of the music from the early medieval period is anonymous. Some of the names may have been poets and lyric writers, and the tunes for which they wrote words may have been composed by others. Attribution of monophonic music of the medieval period is not always reliable. Surviving manuscripts from this period include the Musica Enchiriadis, Codex Calixtinus of Santiago de Compostela, and the Winchester Troper.

For information about specific composers or poets writing during the early medieval period, see Pope Gregory I, St. Godric, Hildegard of Bingen, Hucbald, Notker Balbulus, Odo of Arezzo, Odo of Cluny, and Tutilo.

Liturgical drama

Another musical tradition of Europe originated during the early Middle Ages was the liturgical drama. In its original form, it may represent a survival of Roman drama with Christian stories - mainly the Gospel, the Passion, and the lives of the saints - grafted on. Every part of Europe had some sort of tradition of musical or semi-musical drama in the middle ages, involving acting, speaking, singing and instrumental accompaniment in some combination. Probably these dramas were performed by travelling actors and musicians. Many have been preserved sufficiently to allow modern reconstruction and performance (for example the Play of Daniel, which has been recently recorded).

Goliards

The Goliards were itinerant poet-musicians of Europe from the tenth to the middle of the thirteenth century. Most were scholars or ecclesiastics, and they wrote and sang in Latin. Although many of the poems have survived, very little of the music has. They were possibly influential &mdash even decisively so &mdash on the troubadour- trouvère tradition which was to follow. Most of their poetry is secular and, while some of the songs celebrate religious ideals, others are frankly profane, dealing with drunkenness, debauchery and lechery.


This called for an updated system of music notation.

&ldquoUnless sounds are held by the memory of man, they perish, because they cannot be written down,&rdquo said the scholar St Isidore of Seville, who got sick of forgetting music all the time.

In 650 AD, St Isidore developed a new system of writing music, using a notation called &lsquoneumes&rsquo. Vocal chants (the popular music of the time) would be written on parchment with the text, above which neumes would be notated, indicating the contour of the melody.

Lent: more fun with unheightened neumes! Gradual, 4th Sunday in Lent. Fragment, ca. 12c. #freelibraryrbd #neumes pic.twitter.com/ucTYymCgyv

&mdash Katharine C Chandler (@freyjawaru) April 9, 2014

Neumes were a pretty great invention at the time, but they had one major flaw: the singers didn&rsquot know exactly which note to sing &ndash only whether to sing higher and lower than the last note.


Salve Regina

The Knights loved our Lady tremendously and this song, said to have been composed by various authors such as Hermann of Reichenau, and Bernard of Clairveaux. It was one of their favorites. They felt empowered and emboldened to achieve lots of victories, while under the Virgin’s mantle.

Traditionally sung after compline, the Salve Regina has an interesting legend associated with it:

“Jean l’Hermite dreamt that Bernard of Clairvaux heard the entire hymn sung by heavenly choirs he then repeated the words to Pope Eugene III. In an extension of this legend, it is reported that Bernard visited the great cathedral of Speyer in 1146. When he entered the cathedral, he reverenced Our Lady’s statue, chanting: “O thou deboner, o thou meke, o thou swete maide Marie.”

Martin Luther found it to be too extravagant where it concerns Mary, but Peter Canisius wrote that “we praise God in Mary, namely, the work that he has done in her, when we turn to her in song.”

However, this type of debate was better left to the theologians. As a Knight Templar, all you knew was that it put fire in your veins and inspired you to fight for your homeland.

The Knights left their homes to go fight in strange lands. They prayed for decisive victories so that there would be peace.


A brief history of Gregorian chant

Timothy S. McDonnell, director of music ministries at the Institute of Sacred Music, Benjamin T. Rome School of Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington, conducts an Oct. 10 Gregorian chant rehearsal in the school's St. Vincent Chapel. Gregorian chant is the singing of the liturgy and its texts are almost entirely scriptural. (CNS photo/Chaz Muth)

WASHINGTON (CNS) -- When Erin Bullock steps in front of the altar at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle in Washington, she is there to sing parts of the liturgy and to guide members of the congregation through song.

Her role as cantor at the church is as visible as the priest's during an October Mass and much of the music she intones with her striking soprano -- along with the choir and people in the pews -- is the unadorned resonances of Gregorian chant.

The melodic sounds are unique and often called mysterious.

When performed by the choir, the chants are typically sung in unison without rhyme, meter or musical accompaniment, with the tones rising and falling in an unstructured fashion.

The tradition of sung prayer dates back to the first millennium, with Gregorian chant becoming the proper music of the mature Roman rite, said Timothy S. McDonnell, director of the Institute of Sacred Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington.

Gregorian chant was standard in the Mass in the 1950s, but fell out of favor after the Second Vatican Council, when the traditional Latin Mass was changed to the dominant language of each country.

Though it has regained popularity in the past few decades, the chant is not the principal music in most U.S. Catholic parishes, McDonnell told Catholic News Service.

Categorically speaking, Gregorian chant is sacred music, but not all sacred music is Gregorian chant.

What distinguishes the chant is that the songs are actual prayers and text vital to the liturgy, said Elizabeth Black, assistant music director of St. John the Beloved Catholic Church in McLean, Virginia.

For instance, when the priest sings, "the Lord be with you," and the congregation responds in song, "and with your spirit," they are performing Gregorian chant, because those holy texts are an essential part of the Mass, Black told Catholic News Service during a recent interview.

Most Catholics have performed Gregorian chant, whether they know it or not, said David Lang, music director of Theological College, a national seminary at The Catholic University of America.

"If you are singing a part of the liturgy that is an essential part of the Mass, you are singing Gregorian chant," Lang said. "Even if you are singing a simple response, that's chant."

Though hymns -- often layered in rich harmonies -- may be liturgical in nature, those songs are meant to decorate the Mass with meditative spirituality and are not a crucial part of the liturgy, Black said.

It's one of the reasons the chant is traditionally sung a capella in plain, monophonic tones, McDonnell said, making the text the focal point of the music. However, there are exceptions to that unofficial chant rule, and some choirs add harmonies and occasionally insert musical accompaniment.

Singing has been a part of the liturgy since the early days of the Catholic Church, but Gregorian chant -- which began to take shape in the ninth century -- is the earliest form of liturgical music that was written and preserved for the historical record, he said.

Gregorian chant is named for St. Gregory the Great, who was pope from 590 to 604.

It's unlikely that Pope Gregory I had any direct involvement in developing Gregorian chant, but he was a building pope who helped reorder the liturgy in a more practical way, creating an artistic environment necessary to establish some form of plain chant, McDonnell said.

The music we identify today as Gregorian chant really began to develop several generations after St. Gregory the Great's death, "and in fact, most historians think it's Pope Gregory II (715-731), who reigned about 100 years later, who was the Pope Gregory who actually had more of a hand in formulating this body of chants that we call Gregorian chant," he said.

"You might call it poetry in music, it's very simple in some ways," said Thomas Stehle, director of music ministries at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle, "and yet complex at times."

Throughout the centuries, the chant became a natural part of the liturgy, because of the simplicity of the sung recitation from the priest and response of chanted text by the congregation, with the choir handling the more complex music, said James Senson, music director of St. John the Beloved.

"Gregorian chant can be incredibly advanced, complicated, involved and with a high level of artistic value," McDonnell said. "At the same time, so much of its beauty resides in its simplicity and the fact that much of it can also be accessible to the congregation and by children.

"Anybody can learn to sing some amount of Gregorian chant," he said, "and the church over the years has categorized the chants according to their accessibility. So, there are many chants that are expected to be sung as part of the liturgy by the faithful and those chants really are every bit as much Gregorian chant as the more florid and elaborate ones."

The music was seen as enhancing the sacred texts with an art form.

"As St. Augustine noted, when we pray in song, it's almost as if we're praying twice," Stehle said. "In some ways, it helps carry the emotion of the chant more effectively."

Though Gregorian chant eventually became the music of the church, its use has had periods of intense popularity throughout the centuries and eras when it receded, McDonnell said.

The causes of these waves are variable, he said.

"In many cases, it simply was things like the fall of cities and the fall of Rome," McDonnell said.

"In the 15th century, when the popes came back from Avignon (a period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven popes resided in Avignon, France, rather than in Rome), the city was in absolute ruins, so the culture of Rome had to be rebuilt," he said. "Whenever you take time to invest clergy, to invest resources in the cultivation of sacred things, the art grows again. So, we saw Gregorian chant flourish again."

However, in the 16th century, after culture was put back together, Renaissance polyphony -- with its elaborate texturized harmonies -- became the dominant music in the church and eclipsed Gregorian chant for a time, McDonnell said.

The chant underwent another revival in the early 20th century with liturgical reforms in Pope Pius X's "Tra Le Sollecitudini" ("Among the Concerns") in 1903.

Then in 1947, Pope Pius XII issued his encyclical "Mediator Dei" ("On the Sacred Liturgy"), encouraging active participation by the laity in the liturgy, further reinforcing Gregorian chant, Black said.

"He has a very specific paragraph on Gregorian chant," she said, "where out of the blue he actually says Gregorian chant enables people to participate actively and that this is the people's music and they should be singing it."

While documents issued during Vatican II in the 1960s supported the use of Gregorian chant, the switch from the Latin Mass to the vernacular prompted most parishes to favor musical forms similar to popular culture, such as praise and worship and folk genres, McDonnell said.

The philosophy was, if you are celebrating Mass in the language of the culture, you should be singing in musical genres popular in local societies, he said.

Then, in the 1990s, an enormously popular album recorded by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain, titled "Chant" was released, once again renewing interest in the practice, he said.

Though Gregorian chant isn't the principal force in parish life that it once was, McDonnell said that if history repeats itself, it's in the recovery stage and could once again become a church music staple.


The Medieval Church Modes, Dorian Scales & Mixolydian Scales

Medieval church music was based on one of eight scales or modes. Certain of the modes were used for joyful music, others for meditative chant and still others to tell sad stories. All of these modes were built from the notes in the C major scale (white keys on the piano). For example, the first mode was D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D. The third mode began on E and used only the naturals: E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E. The fifth mode went from F to F, and the seventh mode from G to G. These odd numbered modes were called the authentic modes. Created from each of the authentic modes was a plagal mode. The plagal mode was related to the authentic mode in that it used the same notes and ended on the same "finalis" (final note), but the range of the melody was different. (Click here to find out why chanting rather than singing or speaking)

Huh?? The range of the melody? In Gregorian Chant (medieval church music), the melody stayed within about an octave. So, if you were singing a Chant in the first mode, you could only use one octave of notes and they would have to be D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D.

(If the play bar shows below, click on it to hear the above example.)

HOWEVER, that could be changed slightly by using the second mode (a plagal mode related to the first). The second mode would use the same series of notes, but instead of going from D to D, you would have a range of A to A -- with one big, huge "BUT" -- but, you have to end on D (the finalis).

(If the play bar shows below, click on it to hear the above example.)

Most liturgical texts (church texts) refer to the modes by number, but somewhere along the line, the music theorists confused the medieval church modes with the Greek scales and the modes ended up being referred to by the Greek names. (How come this got messed up. ) Therefore, the modes are most often called:


12. Porcelain

Porcelain was not a sudden invention, and an ancient form of porcelain existed during the Shang dynasty (1600 BC–1046 BC). It was perfected during the Tang dynasty and was exported to the Middle East. During the Song dynasty (960–1279 AD), the manufacture of porcelain became highly organized and reached new heights. By the time of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD) porcelain was being exported to Europe, Africa, and Asia via the Silk Road.


Female warriors in the Middle Ages

Piracy during the 5 th – 9 th centuries was predominately a male activity, but there is a minority of historical female pirates especially during the Norman or Viking period.

5 th Century CE – Princess Sela was the sister of Koller, king of Norway. She was a skilled warrior and pirate. She fought against King Horwendil, and was later killed by him c.420 CE

529 CE – Princess Halima was the daughter of King al-Harit and princess of the Ghassan kingdom. In an act of revenge she led a battle against the Lakhmids who had sacrificed her brother to their goddess.

530 CE – Tomyris was the leader of an Iranian nomadic tribe called the Massagetae her exploits were recorded by historians like Herodotus and thus passed into legend. Her stories however have been recorded both in history books and in paintings. The Persian Emperor of the time, Cyrus (the Great) attempted unsuccessfully to subjugate the Massagetae. He decided to entrap the Massagetae, by leaving a camp full of wine, the Massagetae now drunk allowed the Persians to attack with little resistance and captured them. One of the captured was Tomyris’s son, when he realised his mistake he committed suicide. Tomyris was so furious at this deception she demanded a fight on equal grounds with Cyrus. Her wish was granted and she led a successful army that slaughtered the Persians, Tomyris chopping of the head of Cyrus, which she apparently then kept and used as a wine glass.

535 – 552 CE – In the Gothic war Procopius writes of an English Princess, referred to as ‘the Island Girl’. She is said to have led an invasion of part of Jutland, where she captured the young king, Radigis, who had jilted her after their betrothal.

590 CE – The Christian Synod of Druim Cett ordered that British women should no longer go into battle alongside their men. This ban probably had little effect, and traditions such as sword dancing which was taught by women remained.

6 th Century CE An elite Saxon female burial is discovered in Lincolnshire, England. The burial goods contain a knife and a shield showing possible signs of a female warrior.

598 – 623 CE – Princess Zhao Pingyang of China, was the daughter of Emperor Gaozu of Tang (founding emperor of the Tang Dynasty). Zhao helps her father overthrow the Sui Dynasty, during his campaigns Zhao formed a women’s army, commanded by her she helped to capture the Sui capital of Chang’an.

624 CE – Hind al-Hunnud was known as the ‘Battle Queen’, and a member of the Quarish tribe of the kingdom of Kindah. She helped in the battle against Muhammad. In Arabic culture women played an important role in battle, some of the earliest roots of Arabic culture lay in the cult of the ‘battle queen’ and of tribal warfare. The battle queen mounted upon a camel led the armies into battle. In a more no combat role the battle queen sometimes only served as a symbolic function, that of goddess or commander in chief or field general. When fighting had commenced the battle queen always occupied the centre battle, with her accompanying retinue. Hind al-Hunnud fought the prophet Mohammad in the Battle of Badr in 724, and accounts describe her as ‘brandishing a broadsword with great gusto’.

625 – 705 CE – Wu Chao, known as ‘The Empress Wu’, is considered to have been one of the most powerful women in history. Crucially important is the fact that she was able to rise to such an important position at a time when women where confined to the realms of the family. Wu is said to have been the de facto power behind her Emperor husband, upon his death she then ruled alone. She is said to have been a forceful, innovative and ruthless leader, with the dismissal, exile or execution of any of her opponents. Her navy led a decisive victory at sea which ended China’s long running war with Korea, and her army won many battles over any her rivals, Wu herself surviving several assassination attempts. Her reign insured decades of peace and prosperity and it is said that no other woman except for Elizabeth I and Catherine the Great, retained so much power, over such a vast Empire.

625 CE – Nusaybah bint Ka’ab, was not only an early convert to Islam, but was the first female to take up arms in its defence. She took part in the Battle of Hunain, the Battle of Yamama, the Battle of Uhud, and the Treaty of Hudaibiyah. A devotee of Muhammad, he is quoted as saying that wherever he turned in the battlefield, Nusaybah was there defending and protecting him. At the Battle of Uhud she shielded Muhammad from enemy arrows, and received several wounds whilst fighting.

c.632 – 705 CE – Apranik was the daughter of a Persian general, and herself a Persian Sassanid High Ranking Commander. When the Arabs attacked Persia, Apranik commanded a major battalion against the invaders. When the Sassanid Empire began to crumble Apranik was eventually killed, but remained a rebellious fighter until her death. Her white horse remains a symbol of freedom.

639 CE – Negan was a female guerrilla commander for the Sassanid Empire she was one of the major resistance fighters against the Arab invasion. Neither born into nobility or military trained fighting only out of belief, Negan led a band of resistance fighters and died in battle a year after the invasion.

7 th century CE – Dahia Al-kahina was a military leader of the Berbers and came to be known as leader of the African resistance. The Arabs had seized Cyrenaica, Egypt and Tripoli, and as the invasion spread Kusaila, leader of the Berbers was defeated and killed. Dahia then created a united front against the Arab invaders and counter-attacking them at every turn, she even drove them at one point to be holed up in Cyrenaica (Libya) for about 4 to 5 years. The Arabs regrouped and Dahia was eventually defeated in a battle somewhere in present day Algeria. It is still not clear as to whether Dahia died in battle, committed suicide, or was executed.

7 th century CE – Khawlah Bint al-Kindiyyah was a woman warrior, who with the help from her female captains led an Arab army and stopped a Greek invasion of their homeland. The two armies met at Yermonks, the Arabs looking poorly organised against the disciplined Greeks. However in true battle queen style Khawlah and the other women captains – Oserrah, Alfra’Bint Ghifar al-Humayriah and Wafeira rallied the men and led them into the centre of the battle field. When a Greek soldier knocked Khawlah to the ground, Wafeira sliced his head off with a sword, and holding it high she inspired the soldiers to victory. Khawlah and her captains were later captured in a battle close to Damascus. Angered by the confiscation of their weapons and the treatment they received, the women led a charge against their Greek captors by using tent poles as weapons and successfully escaped.

722 CE – Queen Aethelburgh was the wife of King Ine of Wessex. In 722, she is said to have destroyed Taunton, (which her husband Ine had built earlier in his reign), in an attempt to find the rebel Ealdbert

c.730s CE (active in) – Parsbit (also as Prisbit) was a Khazar noblewoman called ‘the mother of the Khagan’. What is known about her life is that she was said to have wielded enormous power, commanding armies, such as the expeditionary force that was led against Armenia by Tar’mach in 730.

c.750 CE – Azad Deylami / Azad-e Daylami was from the Caspian Sea shores in the north of Iran. She was a partisan leader and became one of the most famous freedom fighters of the region. She fought bravely with her band of freedom fighters for many years against the Arab invaders

c.783 CE – Fastrada, an East Frankish noblewoman who, along with other Saxon women entered into battle against Charlemagne’s forces bare breasted. Fastrada then went onto become Charlemagne’s third wife.

c.815 – 838 CE – Banu, wife of Babak Khoramdin was a legendary Persian freedom fighter, who initiated the Khorram-Dinan movement, in an attempt to overthrow the Abbasid Caliph. She was an extremely skilled archer, fighting both for freedom and the preservation of Persian culture and language. Banu and Babak were eventually betrayed to the Caliph by one of their own officers.

869 – 918 CE – Ethelfleda, also known as our ‘Lady of the Mercians’, was the daughter of Alfred the great. Ethelfleda was considered to be a chief military strategist and the most brilliant tactician of her time. She led armies, built castles, united Mercia – re-establishing Tamworth as it capital. She also fought back an invasion from the Vikings, forcing them to surrender their stronghold at York and even conquered Wales, and made them to pay tribute to her.

890 – 969 CE – Olga of Kiev (Princess Olga), ruled Kievan Rus as regent after her husband’s death in c.945. Olga went to great depths to avenge her husband’s death at the hands of the Drevlians. She successfully slaughtered many of them, interring some in a ship burial whilst still alive. She raised an army which attacked Drevlian strongholds and ended the revolt, but more importantly she changed the system of tribute gathering this act is seen as possibly the first legal reform in Eastern Europe.

C. 950 CE – Thyra of Denmark was the consort of King Gorm the Old of Denmark. Thyra was referred to as a woman of great prudence and she is thought to have led an army against the Germans. Thyra and Gorm were the parents of Harald Bluetooth.

C. 980 – 1000 CE – Queen Regnant Gudit of Bani al-Hamusa of Demot, (Ethiopia). She was a Northern Ethiopian ruler and possibly a Jewess. She became a military leader who attacked the ruling Aksumite Dynasty and is credited with its downfall. It still isn’t clear where Bani al-Humusa was situated: it is said to be south of the Nile and south-west of Shava.

In the 10 th and 11 th centuries stories are told of Shieldmaidens, or Scandinavian female warriors. Few historical records mention the roles of Viking Age women and warfare. But a Byzantine historian by the name of Johannes Skylitzes, records a battle that took place in 971 in which the Scandinavian ruler of Kiev attacked the Byzantines in Bulgaria. The Norsemen suffered a crushing defeat, and the Byzantines were shocked to find amongst the fallen Norse were armed women.

1015 – 1042 CE – Akkadevi, was a governor Princess of a Province of Karnataka, A resistance campaigner who fought battles and superintended sieges. Akkadevi became a heroine of west-central Indian resistance to southern Indian aggression.

1040 – 1090 CE – Sikelgaita was a Lombard princess and the daughter of Guaimar IV, Prince of Salerno. She married the Duke of Apulia and accompanied him on his Byzantine conquests. At the Battle of Dyrrhachium, Sikelgaita is said to have fought in full armour, rallying her husbands despondent troops, and was compared to another ‘Pallas’ or second ‘Athena’.

1046 – 1115 CE – Matilda of Tuscany was an Italian noblewoman and one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. She was the principle Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy.

c.1059 – 1096 CE – Emma de Gauder, Countess of Norfolk, best remembered for defending Norwich Castle when it was under siege. Emma then negotiated safe passage for herself and her troops in return for the castle. She died around 1096 on the road to Palestine during the First Crusade with her husband.

1079 – 1126 CE – Urraca of León and Castile, was Queen regnant of León, Castile and Galicia and she also claimed the imperial title of Empress of All the Spains – ‘suo jure’. She quarrelled with husband Alfonso I of Aragon, the quarrel then turned into open armed warfare between the Leonese-Castillians and Aragonese. By 1112 a truce was brokered and the nightmare marriage was annulled.

1097 – 1136 CE – Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd, was the princess consort of Deheubarth in Wales and a member of the princely Aberffraw family of Gwynedd. Her patriotic revolt and death in a battle against the Normans at Kidwelly Castle contributed to ‘The Great Revolt of 1136’.

c.1120s CE – Liang Hongyu was a female Chinese general and wife of General Han Shizhong of the song army. She fought with her husband against the invasion by the Huns, commanding in battles. Liang is said to have had an exceptional military mind. During the battle with the Huns in 1129 her tactful use of drums and flags as communication signals enabled victory for the mere 8,000 Chinese, against the 100,000-strong Hun army.

1122 – 1204 CE – Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitane and Countess of Poitou was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe. She was queen consort of France 1137 – 1152, and queen consort of England 1154 – 1189. She married Louis VI and accompanied him and his army on the second crusade, the marriage however fell apart, and was annulled. She then married Henry Fitz-Empress, duke of Normandy (and eventually Henry II of England). They had three daughters and five sons. The two sons who survived Henry became kings of England after him: Richard I (the Lionhearted) and John (known as Lackland). In 1173 the sons rebelled against Henry with the full support of Eleanor, (stories pertain this to revenge for Henry’s adultery). The revolt was quickly suppressed and Eleanor was imprisoned from 1173 until 1189 (when Henry died). Upon Richard taking the throne, one of his first acts was to release Eleanor from prison. She now acted as queen regnant whilst Richard joined the Third Crusade of 1189. She outlived all of her children, except for King John and Eleanor, Queen of Castile.


Did the Roman Army have any marching songs?

This includes the army of the Republic and the Empire. Did Rome's Army ever have any marching songs with lyrics or did they just use the beat of drums for marching or did they just leave any musical elements away?

There is very little surviving music from Rome, so this is a tricky question to answer. Douglass Seaton in is book Ideas and Styles in the Western Musical Tradition very briefly addresses Roman Military music.

As one would expect, the military conquests of the Roman armies provided one special field for musical development, the field of battle. It is not surprising that this period produced notable developments in brass instruments.

So we do know that brass instruments were developed and used for the army. We also know that music was fairly common in Rome and that Romans used music for pleasure more than the Ancients Greeks did. We also know that there were professional musicians in Rome who enjoyed a fair amount of popularity.

Those last few items don't directly relate to you question, but it provides some context for music in Roman society.

Source: Douglass Seaton Ideas and Styles in the Western Musical Tradition

Those instruments, the tuba (tuba), the bucina, the cornu (the horn), all the brass instuments of the Roman army seem to have been mainly used for signalling to the troops. It was indeed an important part of Roman military organization, military musicians were part of the higher legionary ranks, immune from common duties and with higher pay.

They sounded the signals for assembly, the beginng of the battle, gave the signal for the attack, for advance and retreat, structured camp life by sounding out the time and the hours of the watch, the wake-up call, and gave signals for tactical maneuvers. In fact, the instruments of the military music are often characterized by their specifical association with war and battle, contrasted with more civilian musical instruments. Their association with the march seems to have been more with giving the signals for various marching tempos, such as when the Romans retreated from Arminius' forces towards the Rhine and were saved only when the trumpeters gave the signal for a quick march, so that the barbarians believed that relief forces (under Asprenas) were on their way.

This afforded an opportunity for the most hardy to get some distance away, and the trumpeters with them by sounding the signal for a double-quick march caused the enemy to think that they had been sent by Asprenas. [Dio LVI, 22, 3].

But there's also reference to them playing veritable 'marching songs', such as in Ammianus Marcellinus, when the Romans advanced towards the Persians:

Therefore when the two armies beheld each other, the Romans glittering with their crested helmets, and brandishing their shields, proceeded slowly, their bands playing an anapaestic measure and after a preliminary skirmish, carried on by the missiles of the front rank, they rushed to battle with such vehemence that the earth trembled beneath them. [Amm. 26, 10, 3]

The Spartans already had used music in the anapaestic measure, accompanied by flute players. The two shorts followed by a stressed length (da-da-DAA) allow for a strong rhythm, and lend themselves well to an advanding march.

Lamentablemente, si bien sobrevive mucho material que nos dice cómo se usaron los diversos instrumentos para organizar la vida del campamento y dar señales tácticas, que yo sepa, hay una verdadera escasez de mención de estos usos más & # x27musicales & # x27 de los instrumentos militares romanos, y Aparte de la canción de marcha mencionada a continuación por / u / GravitasIsOverrated, no conocemos ninguna de sus canciones de marcha. E incluso eso hay que verlo en el contexto del triunfo en el que se cantó, donde tal burla del triunfo era algo común, tolerado e incluso esperado, lo que no nos dice mucho sobre las canciones cantadas en campaña.


Ver el vídeo: CANTO DE MARCHA DE LA LEGION ROMANA Ben Hur