Víctor Jerónimo

Víctor Jerónimo

Jerome Isaac Romain nació en Stryków, Polonia en 1896. Fue enviado a Londres antes de mudarse a la ciudad de Nueva York en 1915. (1) Romain asistió al City College de Nueva York. Después de dejar la universidad, trabajó como contable para el Sindicato Internacional de Trabajadores de la Confección de Mujeres. Durante este período adoptó el nombre de Victor Jerome (V. Jerome). Eugene Lyons lo describió durante este período como un "joven estudioso, idealista y agradable". (2)

En septiembre de 1919, Jerome unió fuerzas con Jay Lovestone, Earl Browder, John Reed, James Cannon, Bertram Wolfe, William Bross Lloyd, Benjamin Gitlow, Charles Ruthenberg, Mikhail Borodin, William Dunne, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Louis Fraina, Ella Reeve Bloor, Rose Pastor Stokes, Juliet Poyntz, Nathan Silvermaster, Jacob Golos, Claude McKay, Max Shachtman, Martin Abern, Michael Gold y Robert Minor, para formar el Partido Comunista de los Estados Unidos (CPUS).

Jerome se casó con el escritor italiano Francis Vinciguerra (también conocido como Frances Winwar) alrededor de 1920. Tuvieron un hijo llamado Germinal pero el matrimonio terminó en divorcio. En 1925 se involucró con Rose Pastor Stokes. En ese momento él tenía veintinueve años y ella cuarenta y siete. (3) Stokes le escribió a Jeanette Pearl sobre el nuevo hombre en su vida: "Estoy interfiriendo con sus estudios y me temo que está interfiriendo con mi paz mental ... Estoy muy cerca de estar en ese punto que Perderé todo juicio cuerdo. No te enamores, Jean. Es un esclavizador de la vida ". (4) La pareja se casó en febrero de 1927.

En 1929, Rose Pastor Stokes resultó gravemente herido cuando la policía lo golpeó en una manifestación que exigía la retirada de las fuerzas estadounidenses de Haití. Según un informe del Crónica diaria Rose Pastor Stokes "fue golpeada mientras intentaba proteger a un niño de un policía". (5)

Según Judith Rosenbaum: "En 1930, a Stokes le diagnosticaron un tumor maligno de mama, que atribuyó a haber recibido un golpe en el pecho de un club de policías durante una manifestación, alegando martirio por la causa proletaria. Su salud se deterioró rápidamente; incluso así, mantuvo su espíritu de lucha radical. Aunque su enfermedad le impidió permanecer activa en el Partido Comunista durante los últimos años de su vida, continuó afirmando su lealtad al mismo ". Rose se mudó a Alemania para recibir radioterapia, pero murió en Frankfurt el 20 de junio de 1933. (6)

En 1935, Victor Jerome se convirtió en el editor de la revista teórica del Partido, El comunista. Al año siguiente se convirtió en el jefe de la Comisión Cultural del Partido. Durante un tiempo, Jerome asumió personalmente la responsabilidad de las sucursales de Hollywood, "aislándolas del resto del Partido en Los Ángeles y manteniéndolas en contacto directo con la dirección nacional". (7)

Las estrellas de Hollywood que simpatizaban con el comunismo fueron vistas como una fuente de apoyo financiero para el Partido Comunista de los Estados Unidos. También ofreció la oportunidad de influir o controlar "el arma de la cultura de masas". John Howard Lawson, un joven guionista, dirigía la sucursal de Hollywood. (8) Sin embargo, como Victor Navasky, el autor de Nombres de nombres (1982) señaló: "John Howard Lawson, que dirigía la sucursal de Hollywood, comprendió rápidamente que el proceso colectivo de realización de películas impedía que el guionista, el hombre bajo en el tótem creativo, influyera en el contenido de las películas". (9)

Jerónimo fue utilizado para defender las acciones de Joseph Stalin. Pasó mucho tiempo en Hollywood en la década de 1930 explicando los juicios de Moscú, que resultaron en la ejecución de figuras destacadas como Gregory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Yuri Piatakov, Karl Radek, Grigori Sokolnikov, Nickolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, Genrikh Yagoda. , Nikolai Krestinsky y Christian Rakovsky. (10)

Esto le causó problemas a Jerome, ya que muchos de sus miembros de Hollywood apoyaron al ala Leon Trotsky del partido. Otros eran marxistas independientes. El periodista Cedric Belfrage fue uno de los que se opusieron a las opiniones pro-Stalin de Jerome. Por ejemplo, en una reunión, John Bright, el guionista, le preguntó a Jerome: "Camarada Jerome, ¿qué pasa si se toma una decisión del Partido que usted no puede aceptar?" Jerónimo respondió: "Cuando el Partido toma una decisión, se convierte en su opinión". (11)

Granville Hicks recordó más tarde que envió una reseña de libro para el Trabajador diario donde afirmó que Karl Marx y Lenin eran grandes teóricos. Jerome se puso en contacto con Hicks y le señaló que debería haber incluido a Joseph Stalin en su lista de "grandes teóricos". Hicks se negó y abandonó el Partido Comunista. (12)

Victor Jerome también trató de influir en quienes trabajaban en el teatro en la ciudad de Nueva York. Uno de los grandes éxitos durante la década de 1930 fue el Group Theatre que fue formado por Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford y Lee Strasberg. Los fundadores no eran miembros del partido, pero algunas de las personas involucradas en sus actividades eran comunistas comprometidos. Esto incluyó a Clifford Odets, quien tuvo un gran éxito con sus obras. Esperando a Lefty y ¡Despierta y canta! en 1935.

Elia Kazan, miembro del grupo, se iba a quejar más tarde de cómo les habían ordenado cambiar una obra para ridiculizar a Fiorello LaGuardia, el alcalde liberal de la ciudad de Nueva York. En 1935, Jerome le pidió a Kazán que hiciera arreglos para que los comunistas tomaran el control de la institución: "Llevé el mensaje del camarada Jerome a nuestra reunión habitual del martes por la noche en el camerino de Joe Bromberg, transmití su instrucción de que nuestra celda debería trabajar de inmediato para transformar el Grupo en un colectivo, un teatro dirigido por sus actores. Fue una sorpresa para mí cuando los miembros de nuestra célula hicieron rápida y unánimemente lo que la gente del Teatro de Acción había hecho en el tema de la obra La Guardia: ceder ante la directiva política del hombre de la calle Duodécima. Luego me tocó hablar. Yo era tímido; a pesar de mi reputación actual de hombre cabezota, hasta ese momento romper filas fue un acto de audacia para mí. Sorprendí a todos por mi obstinación ; Me sorprendí a mí mismo. Creo que soné como una disculpa por no estar de acuerdo. Podía sentir desconcierto e impaciencia a mi alrededor. Supongo que la posición que tomé fue una señal de falta de respeto por la astucia política de mis compañeros actores. Y posiblemente bly su coraje. Me votaron en contra "(13).

Budd Schulberg era un novelista que trabajaba en Hollywood. Como miembro del Partido Comunista de los Estados Unidos se vio obligado a mostrar el manuscrito de ¿Qué hace que Sammy corra? a Victor Jerome, a quien no le gustó el libro: "La sensación era que mi libro era una idea destructiva; que ... era demasiado individualista; que no empezaba a mostrar lo que se llamaba las fuerzas progresistas en Hollywood". (14) Schulberg se negó a cambiar su libro y, en cambio, abandonó el partido. (15)

Victor Jerome también se involucró en una red de espías soviéticos con sede en la ciudad que estaba dirigida por Jacob Golos. Otros miembros fueron Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Nathan Silvermaster, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, William Remington, Harold Glasser, Charles Kramer, Duncan Chaplin Lee, Joseph Katz, William Ludwig Ullmann, Henry Hill Collins, Frank Coe, Abraham Brothman, Mary Price y Lauchlin Currie. (dieciséis)

Cedric Belfrage, que trabajaba como agente doble, dijo al FBI que "le proporcioné (a Jerome) información sobre la vigilancia de Scotland Yard y también algunos documentos relacionados con el gobierno de Vichy en Francia, que eran de carácter altamente confidencial. " (17) Esto fue apoyado por la confesión hecha por Elizabeth Bentley en 1945. (18)

El 12 de febrero de 1945, Albert Maltz escribió un artículo para el Nuevas misas pidiendo más libertad intelectual en el Partido Comunista. "Ha sido mi conclusión durante algún tiempo que gran parte de la actividad artística de izquierda, tanto creativa como crítica, se ha restringido, estrechado, sintonizado con la vida, a veces esterilizado, porque la atmósfera y el pensamiento de la izquierda literaria se había basado en un enfoque superficial ... He llegado a creer que la comprensión aceptada del arte como arma no es una guía útil, sino una camisa de fuerza. He sentido esto en mis propias obras y lo he visto en las obras o en otras . Para poder escribir, hace tiempo que se me hace necesario repudiarlo y abandonarlo ". (19)

Maltz continuó argumentando que estaba mal juzgar las obras creativas principalmente por su ideología. Usó el ejemplo de cómo un periódico comunista en 1940 atacó una obra de Lillian Hellman, porque su política antinazi era un anatema durante el período del Pacto Nazi-Soviético. (20)

Jerome organizó el ataque a Maltz. En la próxima edición del Nuevas misas, el novelista Howard Fast afirmó: "Aboga, para el artista, la retirada. Le ruega que se salga de la arena de la vida. El hecho de que la vida muestra, y lo ha demostrado durante una generación, que tal retirada es equivalente a la muerte artística y la degradación personal, no corta el hielo con Maltz ". (21) Joseph North escribió que Maltz talaría "el árbol fructífero del marxismo" para curar algunas ramas débiles. (22)

Alvah Bessie fue otro que criticó a Maltz y sugirió que lo que dijo iba en contra del marxismo. "Él (Maltz) en ninguna parte declara su marco de referencia o identifica el punto de partida desde el cual lanza lo que es, objetivamente, no solo un ataque al marxismo sino una defensa de prácticamente todos los escritores renegados de los últimos años que alguna vez coquetearon con los trabajadores". movimiento de clase ... Necesitamos artistas del Partido. Necesitamos artistas profundamente arraigados en la clase trabajadora ". (23)

Otros miembros como Michael Gold, John Howard Lawson y William Z. Foster se unieron. "Maltz, insistieron, se había estado tomando peligrosas libertades con la supremacía de los compromisos políticos sobre los gustos artísticos". (24) Lawson señaló: "No podemos divorciar las opiniones expresadas por Maltz del momento histórico que selecciona para la presentación de estas opiniones. Escribe en un momento de lucha decisiva. Las victorias democráticas logradas en la Segunda Guerra Mundial están amenazadas por las todavía poderosas fuerzas del imperialismo y la reacción, que son especialmente fuertes en Estados Unidos ". (25)

Victor Jerome obligó a Maltz a escribir una retractación de su primer artículo. El 9 de abril de 1946, dos meses después de su esfuerzo inicial, Albert Maltz publicó un segundo artículo en el Nuevas misas: "Considero ahora que mi artículo - por lo que he llegado a estar de acuerdo era un tratamiento unilateral y no dialéctico de cuestiones complejas - no podía ... contribuir al desarrollo de la crítica de izquierda y la escritura creativa". (26)

IF Stone recordó más tarde que estaba consternado por la forma en que se trató a Maltz: "Él (Jerome) es un tipo increíblemente agradable en lo personal, pero políticamente ha tratado de burlarse de los intelectuales de la manera más ofensiva para cualquiera que crea en los intelectuales y libertad cultural ... a menudo de las formas más humillantes, como en el arrastre forzado ... a Albert Maltz ... Él (Jerome) tiene una mentalidad dictatorial ". (27)

En 1950, se ordenó a Howard Fast que compareciera ante el Comité de Actividades Antiamericanas de la Cámara. porque había contribuido al apoyo de un hospital para las fuerzas del Frente Popular en Toulouse durante la Guerra Civil Española. Cuando compareció ante el HUAC, se negó a nombrar a otros miembros del Partido Comunista Estadounidense, alegando que la 1ª Enmienda de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos les daba derecho a hacerlo. El HUAC y los tribunales durante las apelaciones no estuvieron de acuerdo y fue sentenciado a tres meses de prisión.

Cuando salió de la cárcel, Fast descubrió que Jerome había organizado la producción de El martillo. "Durante las semanas antes de ir a prisión, había escrito una obra de teatro llamada El martillo. Era un drama sobre una familia judía durante los años de guerra, un padre trabajador que mantiene la cabeza a flote y sus tres hijos. Uno Su hijo sale del ejército, gravemente herido, con muchas cicatrices. Otro hijo hace una fortuna con la guerra, y el hijo menor aporta su parte del drama al decidir alistarse ".

Fast fue a ver la vista previa de la obra: "La obra comenzó. El padre subió al escenario, Michael Lewin, pequeño, esbelto, de piel blanca pálida y cabello naranja. Nina Normani, interpretando a la esposa de Michael, pequeña, pálida. La primera Su hijo subió al escenario, James Earl Jones, de un metro ochenta y dos pulgadas, tramposo, dieciocho años si no recuerdo mal, doscientas libras de huesos y músculos si una onza, y una voz de bajo que estremeció las paredes del pequeño teatro. . "

Fast se quejó del casting de James Earl Jones como Jimmy Jones. Le dijeron que todo había sido arreglado por Victor Jerome y que estaba siendo un chovinista blanco al oponerse al papel interpretado por un actor negro. Fast respondió: "No estoy siendo un chovinista blanco, Lionel. Pero aquí Mike pesa tal vez cuarenta y cinco kilos, y está tan pálido como cualquiera y es judío, y por el amor de Dios, dime qué milagro genético podría producir a Jimmy Jones ". Sin embargo, después de las amenazas de que Jerome lo expulsaría del Partido Comunista, aceptó el casting. (28)

Victor Jerome, como jefe de la Comisión Cultural, controlaba el contenido de los diarios del partido. También intentó influir en otras revistas de izquierda. Después de la guerra, Cedric Belfrage, James Aronson y John T.McManus establecieron el Guardián nacional. El periódico brindó publicidad positiva para Vito Marcantonio y el Partido Laborista Estadounidense (ALP) y Henry A. Wallace y el Partido Progresista.

Según Belfrage, Jerome intentó tomar el control del periódico a través de los hombres que imprimían los periódicos: "V. Jerome era un hombre aparentemente apacible con una mezcla única de lo poético con la austeridad partidaria. Tenía pocas dudas de que, si hubiera cualquier plan para hacerse cargo del Guardián Nacional a través de una célula comunista del personal, él lo sabría todo ". En una reunión con Jerome, mencionó su participación pasada con la inteligencia británica. Temiendo la posibilidad de ser denunciado a las autoridades, Jerome acordó "suspender sus tropas de choque". (29)

En 1951, Victor Jerome fue procesado en virtud de la Ley Smith, por escribir un folleto, Agarre el arma de la cultura. El acto hizo ilegal que cualquier persona en los Estados Unidos abogara, incitara o enseñara la conveniencia de derrocar al gobierno. El principal objetivo del acto era socavar al Partido Comunista y otros grupos políticos de izquierda en Estados Unidos.

Durante los últimos años, más de 200 personas habían sido condenadas mediante este acto. Esto incluyó a James Cannon, Harry Bridges, Farrell Dobbs, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Eugene Dennis, William Z. Foster, Benjamin Davis, John Gates, Robert G. Thompson, Gus Hall, Benjamin Davis, Henry M. Winston y Gil Green.

Después de un juicio de nueve meses en el Palacio de Justicia de Foley Square de Nueva York, Jerome fue declarado culpable y sentenciado en 1953 a tres años en la Penitenciaría de Lewisburg. Mientras estaba en prisión publicó la novela, Una linterna para Jeremy.

Victor Jerome murió en 1965.

En algún momento novelista, Jerome fue conocido en primer lugar por su matrimonio con Rose Pastor Stokes, la exlíder de huelga de comerciantes y heroína radical carismática de las décadas de 1910 y 20, lo que le permitió acceder fácilmente a los reinos superiores de los críticos culturales comunistas, pero en segundo lugar por su condición de cazador de herejías. Ya había intentado, en el momento de sus primeras visitas a Hollywood, definir las formas adecuadas de literatura proletaria, buscando prohibir los métodos desviados a los revolucionarios serios. En 1935 se había hecho cargo de la revista teórica del Partido, El comunista, y permaneció más o menos en ese puesto durante veinte años. Destinado a desempeñar un papel melancólico en la izquierda de Hollywood, realizó viajes intermitentes a Hollywood desde 1936 en adelante, recabando fondos de escritores o directores exitosos, asegurando a los oyentes la rectitud del liderazgo soviético (especialmente frente a eventos desalentadores como los Juicios de Moscú). y emitir directivas que en realidad no se pudieron seguir pero que mantuvieron al líder oficial Lawson en ascuas.


Molly Kazan había sido instructora en Theatre Union y había tenido experiencia con aficionados políticamente "correctos" que arrojaban su peso ideológico en una organización artística. Ella había pasado por la experiencia del Teatro de Acción conmigo. Había sido testigo de los azotes que el Partido le había dado a Jack Lawson y de su humillante retirada de su intención artística personal. "Arrastrándose a los pies de V. Jerome", lo había llamado. "¿Qué diablos sabe Jerome sobre el funcionamiento de un teatro?" ella había preguntado. ¿Había estado alguna vez entre bastidores? Jack, habiendo lamentado su elección del héroe de Dulce mujer y expresó extensamente su arrepentimiento, se trasladó a Hollywood, donde, convertido y recompensado, dirigía el espectáculo del Partido. Las filas que marchaban a la izquierda no debían romperse.

Llevé el mensaje del camarada Jerome a nuestra reunión habitual del martes por la noche en el camerino de Joe Bromberg, transmití su instrucción de que nuestra célula debería trabajar de inmediato para transformar el Grupo en un colectivo, un teatro dirigido por sus actores. Me rechazaron.

Más tarde descubrí que culpaban a Molly y la influencia de Harold Clurman. Vieron que yo estaba del lado de los directores, no del "pueblo". Por lo tanto, fui antidemocrático. Y, por tanto, ¡qué irónico! No es un buen comunista. Pero lo que más culparon fue mi carácter: era un oportunista que haría cualquier cosa para llegar a la cima. Muchas personas me han acusado de esto muchas veces. El hecho es que tengo, llámelo elitismo, fuertes sentimientos de que algunas personas son más inteligentes, más educadas, más enérgicas y, en conjunto, mejor calificadas para liderar que otras. También creía entonces y creo ahora que que una persona esté de acuerdo conmigo políticamente no es garantía de su talento artístico. No me impresionaron los argumentos de mis compañeros de celda.

(1) Paul Buhle y Dave Wagner, Hollywood radical (2002) página 84

(2) Eugene Lyons, carta a John Whitcomb (8 de enero de 1958)

(3) Arthur y Pearl Zipser, Fuego y gracia: la vida de Rose Pastor Stokes (1989) página 271

(4) Rose Pastor Stokes, carta a Jeanette Pearl (diciembre de 1926)

(5) Crónica diaria (21 de junio de 1933)

(6) Judith Rosenbaum, Rose Pastor Stokes (1995-2015)

(7) Paul Buhle y Dave Wagner, Hollywood radical (2002) página 85

(8) Patrick McGilligan y Paul Buhle, Compañeros tiernos (1997) página 145

(9) Víctor Navasky, Nombres de nombres (1982) página 78

(10) Paul Buhle y Dave Wagner, Hollywood radical (2002) página 85

(11) John Bright, citado en Compañeros tiernos (1997) página 151

(12) Granville Hicks, testimonio ante el Comité de Actividades Antiamericanas (febrero de 1953)

(13) Elia Kazán, Elia Kazan: una vida (1989) página 144

(14) Budd Schulberg, testimonio ante el Comité de Actividades Antiamericanas (23 de mayo de 1951)

(15) Víctor Navasky, Nombres de nombres (1982) página 286

(16) Elizabeth Bentley, entrevista con el FBI (8 de noviembre de 1945)

(17) Nigel West, Venona: el mayor secreto de la guerra fría (2000) pág.109

(18) Robert J. Lamphere, La guerra del FBI-KGB (1986) página 254

(19) Albert Maltz, Nuevas misas (12 de febrero de 1946)

(20) Víctor Navasky, Nombres de nombres (1982) página 288

(21) Howard Fast, Nuevas misas (26 de febrero de 1946)

(22) José Norte, Nuevas misas (26 de febrero de 1946)

(23) Alvah Bessie, Nuevas misas (12 de marzo de 1946)

(24) Paul Buhle y Dave Wagner, Hollywood radical (2002) página 264

(25) John Howard Lawson, Nuevas misas (12 de marzo de 1946)

(26) Albert Maltz, Nuevas misas (9 de abril de 1946)

(27) I. Stone, carta a Dashiell Hammett (18 de marzo de 1952)

(28) Howard Fast, Ser rojo (1990) páginas 270-273

(29) Cedric Belfrage y James Aronson, Algo que proteger (1978) páginas 62-63


Papeles de Victor Jeremy Jerome

La serie Correspondence se divide en dos secciones, correspondencia general y penitenciaria. La primera sección incluye correspondencia con Herbert Aptheker, Ella Reeve Bloor, Olive T. Dargan, W. E. B. Du Bois, Howard Fast, Rockwell Kent, Alfred Kreymborg, Robert Morss Lovett, Walter Lowenfels, Archibald MacLeish, Abe Magil, Albert Maltz y Joseph North. Jerome también mantuvo una extensa correspondencia con John Howard Lawson, Holland Roberts y Eliot White. Aunque Victor Jerome probablemente destruyó parte de su correspondencia con los comunistas cuando comenzaron los juicios de la Ley Smith, queda mucho por hacer. Sus cartas al Comité Nacional del Partido Comunista entre 1952 y 1954 revelan algunas de sus impresiones de los juicios, contienen su renuncia a la dirección editorial de Asuntos Políticos y sus puntos de vista sobre el Partido y la Iglesia, y la autodeterminación de los negros estadounidenses. La carpeta de correspondencia con William Z. Foster contiene el informe de Jerome de 1950 al comité nacional y una larga carta de Jerome en la que comenta las tensiones internas del partido. También son importantes las carpetas de Dashiell Hammett (que incluye material del Comité para defender a V. J. Jerome) y Paul Robeson (que contiene una copia del discurso de Robeson de 1952 en defensa de Victor Jerome).

La correspondencia con la tercera esposa de Jerome, Alice Jerome, y sus dos hijos, Fred y Carl, está agrupada en una sola carpeta al final de esta sección. Debido a que la correspondencia de Alice Jerome fue escrita principalmente en nombre de Victor Jerome, está intercalada con la correspondencia general. La correspondencia con la primera esposa de Jerome, Frances Winwar, y con su hijo, Francis Warwin, se archiva por separado con sus nombres. No hay correspondencia con Rose Pastor Stokes.

La segunda sección de Correspondencia consiste en la correspondencia de la prisión de Jerome. Si bien el período de su encarcelamiento (1951-1957) se cubre en la sección general, la correspondencia de la prisión contiene solo cartas escritas a o desde Victor Jerome mientras cumplía su condena. Debido a que su correspondencia estaba restringida, tanto en corresponsales como en contenido, el material de la prisión se ocupa principalmente de los escritos de Jerome y los asuntos familiares. Sin embargo, sus cartas de abril de 1956 revelan la racionalización de un comunista estadounidense de la persecución soviética de los judíos rusos: "No el socialismo, sino los crímenes contra sus principios hicieron posible, en un estado obrero, esos crímenes contra la sanción humana y cultural".

Los materiales y escritos de investigación incluyen los escritos de ficción y no ficción de Jerome y sus materiales de investigación. Los escritos de no ficción consisten en sus artículos periodísticos, su columna periodística & quotQuestions from the People & quot; borradores, copias y reseñas de sus ensayos políticos y culturales. También hay cuentos, poemas, obras de teatro y novelas. Se incluyen borradores, copias del texto y reseñas del poema "Caliban Speaks", que Jerome escribió en la corte durante los Juicios de la Ley Smith. Además, hay materiales de investigación, borradores, textos y reseñas de A Lantern for Jeremy, The Paper Bridge y Unstill Waters. El último artículo de la serie es la novela inacabada de Jerome sobre Spinoza.

La serie Personal and Financial incluye material biográfico, obituarios y elogios, y recuerdos de Victor Jerome. La serie también contiene una copia del primer borrador incompleto de la autobiografía de RosePastor Stoke, I Belong to the Working Class.


Papeles de Victor Jeremy Jerome

La serie Correspondence se divide en dos secciones, correspondencia general y penitenciaria. La primera sección incluye correspondencia con Herbert Aptheker, Ella Reeve Bloor, Olive T. Dargan, W. E. B. Du Bois, Howard Fast, Rockwell Kent, Alfred Kreymborg, Robert Morss Lovett, Walter Lowenfels, Archibald MacLeish, Abe Magil, Albert Maltz y Joseph North. Jerome también mantuvo una extensa correspondencia con John Howard Lawson, Holland Roberts y Eliot White. Aunque Victor Jerome probablemente destruyó parte de su correspondencia con los comunistas cuando comenzaron los juicios de la Ley Smith, queda mucho por hacer. Sus cartas al Comité Nacional del Partido Comunista entre 1952 y 1954 revelan algunas de sus impresiones de los juicios, contienen su renuncia a la dirección editorial de Asuntos Políticos y sus puntos de vista sobre el Partido y la Iglesia, y la autodeterminación de los negros estadounidenses. La carpeta de correspondencia con William Z. Foster contiene el informe de Jerome de 1950 al comité nacional y una larga carta de Jerome en la que comenta las tensiones internas del partido. También son importantes las carpetas de Dashiell Hammett (que incluye material del Comité para defender a V. J. Jerome) y Paul Robeson (que contiene una copia del discurso de Robeson de 1952 en defensa de Victor Jerome).

La correspondencia con la tercera esposa de Jerome, Alice Jerome, y sus dos hijos, Fred y Carl, está agrupada en una sola carpeta al final de esta sección. Debido a que la correspondencia de Alice Jerome fue escrita principalmente en nombre de Victor Jerome, está intercalada con la correspondencia general. La correspondencia con la primera esposa de Jerome, Frances Winwar, y con su hijo, Francis Warwin, se archiva por separado con sus nombres. No hay correspondencia con Rose Pastor Stokes.

La segunda sección de Correspondencia consiste en la correspondencia de la prisión de Jerome. Si bien el período de su encarcelamiento (1951-1957) se cubre en la sección general, la correspondencia de la prisión contiene solo cartas escritas hacia o desde Victor Jerome mientras cumplía su condena. Debido a que su correspondencia estaba restringida, tanto en corresponsales como en contenido, el material de la prisión se ocupa principalmente de los escritos de Jerome y los asuntos familiares. Sin embargo, sus cartas de abril de 1956 revelan la racionalización de un comunista estadounidense de la persecución soviética de los judíos rusos: "No el socialismo, sino los crímenes contra sus principios hicieron posible, en un estado obrero, esos crímenes contra la sanción humana y cultural".

Los materiales y escritos de investigación incluyen los escritos de ficción y no ficción de Jerome y sus materiales de investigación. Los escritos de no ficción consisten en sus artículos periodísticos, su columna periodística & quotQuestions from the People & quot; borradores, copias y reseñas de sus ensayos políticos y culturales. También hay cuentos, poemas, obras de teatro y novelas. Se incluyen borradores, copias del texto y reseñas del poema "Caliban Speaks", que Jerome escribió en la corte durante los Juicios de la Ley Smith. Además, hay materiales de investigación, borradores, textos y reseñas de A Lantern for Jeremy, The Paper Bridge y Unstill Waters. El último artículo de la serie es la novela inacabada de Jerome sobre Spinoza.

La serie Personal and Financial incluye material biográfico, obituarios y elogios, y recuerdos de Victor Jerome. La serie también contiene una copia del primer borrador incompleto de la autobiografía de RosePastor Stoke, I Belong to the Working Class.


Victor Jerome - Historia

En su apogeo, los límites del Imperio Romano se extendían desde el norte de Inglaterra a través del Mar del Norte, a lo largo de los ríos Rin y Danubio hasta el Mar Caspio, al sur de Egipto, a lo largo de la costa de África hasta España. El declive y eventual colapso de este vasto imperio tuvo lugar durante un período de años antes de llegar a su amargo final a mediados del siglo quinto. Su desaparición siguió un patrón en el que períodos prolongados de debilidad fueron seguidos por explosiones insostenibles de fuerza que inevitablemente llevaron a un mayor declive. Las fuerzas que motivaron su destrucción provienen de la decadencia interna de su estructura económica, política y social combinada con implacables ataques bárbaros desde el exterior.

Las invasiones bárbaras del Imperio Romano
Haga clic en los elementos subrayados para obtener más información.
Los hunos hicieron su primera aparición en lo que hoy es Europa del Este alrededor del año 370. Desde las estepas centrales de Asia, su llegada empujó a las tribus residentes como los vándalos y visigodos hacia el oeste a una colisión con el Imperio Romano (ver Cenar con Atila el Huno). En 376, los visigodos cruzaron el río Danubio, un límite tradicional del Imperio Romano, y se dirigieron hacia el sur. Dos años más tarde, los visigodos derrotaron a los romanos en la batalla de Adrianópolis, debilitando aún más el Imperio.

Más al oeste, los vándalos cruzaron el río Rin -otro límite tradicional del Imperio- en 406. Continuaron su asalto hacia el sur hasta España, cruzando los Pirineos en 409. Un año después, los visigodos saquearon Roma y continuaron su camino hacia España.

En 429, los vándalos cruzaron el Estrecho de Gibraltar y llegaron a las costas de África. Continuaron su asalto hacia el este a lo largo de la costa y volvieron a cruzar el Mediterráneo para hacer un desembarco en Italia. En 455 siguieron los pasos de los visigodos y saquearon Roma. El Imperio Romano Occidental estaba muerto. Sin embargo, subsistió un vestigio de Roma. Su parte oriental, con su capital en Constantinopla, duró otros 1000 años hasta que la ciudad fue saqueada por los musulmanes en 1453.

San Jerónimo nació alrededor del año 340. Llegó a Roma y fue bautizado allí alrededor del 360. Dedicó el resto de su vida a la búsqueda de la erudición y la traducción de la Biblia al latín. Murió en 420. Escribió las siguientes observaciones que describen la devastación del Imperio alrededor de 406:

¡Oh, miserable Imperio! Mayence [Mainz, Alemania], que antes era una ciudad tan noble, ha sido tomada y arruinada, y en la iglesia muchos miles de hombres han sido masacrados. Worms [Alemania] ha sido destruida después de un largo asedio. Reims, esa poderosa ciudad, Amiens, Arras, Speyer [Alemania], Estrasburgo, todos han visto a sus ciudadanos llevados cautivos a Alemania. Aquitania y las provincias de Lyon y Narbona, todas salvo algunas ciudades, han sido despobladas y la espada amenaza por fuera, mientras que el hambre arrasa por dentro.

No puedo hablar sin lágrimas de Toulouse, que los méritos del santo obispo Exuperius han prevalecido hasta ahora para salvar de la destrucción. España, incluso, está en un terror cotidiano no sea que perezca, recordando la invasión del Cimbri y lo que sea que las otras provincias hayan sufrido una vez, continúan sufriendo en su miedo.

Guardaré silencio acerca de los demás, no sea que parezca desesperar por la misericordia de Dios. Durante mucho tiempo, desde el Mar Negro hasta los Alpes Julianos, las cosas que son nuestras no han sido nuestras y durante treinta años, desde que se rompió la frontera del Danubio, se ha librado la guerra en medio del Imperio Romano. Nuestras lágrimas se secan por la vejez. Excepto unos pocos ancianos, todos nacieron en cautiverio y asedio, y no desean la libertad que nunca conocieron.

¿Quién podría creer esto? ¿Cómo podría contarse dignamente toda la historia? Cómo Roma ha luchado dentro de su propio seno, no por la gloria, sino por la preservación, es más, cómo ni siquiera ha luchado, pero con el oro y todas sus cosas preciosas ha rescatado su vida.

¿Quién podría creer que Roma, construida sobre la conquista del mundo entero, caería al suelo? ¿Que la madre misma se convertiría en la tumba de sus pueblos? ¿Que todas las regiones del Este, de África y Egipto, una vez gobernadas por la ciudad reina, se llenarían de tropas de esclavos y doncellas? ¿Que el santo Belén de hoy debe albergar a hombres y mujeres de noble cuna, que una vez abundaban en riquezas y ahora son mendigos?

Referencias:
Este relato de un testigo ocular aparece en Robinson, James Harvey, Readings in European History (1906) Duruy, Victor, History of Rome and of the Roman People, vol VIII (1883).


Personalidad

Jerome es una persona absolutamente despiadada, impredecible, despiadada, manipuladora y psicópata que disfruta profundamente de actos innecesarios de violencia y caos. Si bien inicialmente actuó como una persona normal, llorando por la muerte de su madre y siendo cortés con los demás, mostró sus verdaderos colores una vez que Jim Gordon dedujo que había matado a su madre. Unlike most criminals, Jerome does not care about organized crime or profiting from his crimes, he simply wishes to cause as much chaos and violence as possible. He was shown to be a new class of criminal, one who killed who he wanted, and did what he wanted with no overall motive other than making Gotham crazier than it was.

Jerome is a showman whereas most criminals would work from the shadows and conceal their crimes, he often broadcasted the carnage and violence he would inflict through his crimes, and he would always have a theatricality to his insanity. Jerome desired to create a legacy for himself, no matter how cruel or corrupt, and he shows sadistic pleasure at the prospect of being remembered as a curse upon Gotham. His cruelty and remorseless nature was also shown by the fact that he killed most of his family members, never once hesitating when he had the chance to. It should be noted that Jerome’s family members had abused him throughout his childhood which resulted in a lack of emotional family bonds. This lack of familial attachment and negative experiences are likely the reason he didn't hesitate to kill them, or show remorse after ending their lives.

Despite his ruthless and psychopathic nature, Jerome is capable of making allies and alliances. This is best shown through his leadership of the Maniax before his death, leading a cult that worshipped him after he was resurrected, taking over Arkham Asylum, and leading the Legions of Horribles. However, his only loyalty is to himself, as he would frequently kill his allies or followers if he felt they had outlived their usefulness, let him down, or if he was simply in a bad mood. He did show true respect to Theo Galavan, seeing him as a mentor due to his belief in him, though this respect was later shattered after Galavan killed him, and he was brought back to life, wishing to kill him. Though he initially seemed to have a positive relationship with his father, shown by the fact the man willingly helped him to hide his mothers body, Jerome showed the same disregard for others towards him, eventually killing him and framing him as part of Jerome and the Maniax's escape from Arkham.

In certain instances, Jerome seemed to also have the capacity to spare some of his former opponents for unknown reasons despite having the time and opportunity to kill or torture them. When Jerome was brought back to life he killed the person in charge of inspecting his body, yet he spared Lee Thompkins from any harm after a long discussion about what had been happening to Gotham in the time that he had been 'dead'. It is possible that Jerome may have had other ulterior motives for doing so, perhaps believing that Lee's continued conflict with Gordon would distract and take its toll on the detective. 

Jerome was also shown to have a disregard for his own safety, shown when he pulled the trigger on himself three times during a game of russian roulette, and allowing himself to fall to his death instead of letting Jim Gordon save him. He was also highly sadistic and even masochistic, as he enjoyed inflicting pain and had no problem receiving it himself.

After he was brought back to life, Jerome was shown to be even more ruthless, cruel and psychotic. He wished to bring all of Gotham's citizens down to his level, describing how "we could all go insane with just one bad day". However, Jerome also showed a reflective side to himself during this time, as he admitted that no one ever helped him, though he was quick to taunt Bruce for helping him and letting him almost get killed by the man he had saved him from. He would also claim to Jeremiah that their mother gave up on him once he was hidden away, and that she had been 'poisoned by your stories.' This indicates that, while he would always have been ruthless and insane, Jerome may have had a chance at being normal if his family life had been different, though he did not seem to pay much attention to these musings, and instead embraced his insanity.

In his last days, Jerome showed some twisted affection towards his brother: although he threatened to kill him, and did assault him during their last confrontation, he tried to encourage Jeremiah to embrace his hidden insanity as Jerome had, and to no longer hide it. He also showed that he had no problem with dying a second time, as he willingly fell to his own death, laughing as he did so.


Victor, known as Louis Lewanski, was a young boy who witnessed the flood 35 years before the events of season one. He is seen in a crowd watching the water engulf the town, along with Madame Costa, Milan, Lucy, and his mother.

Although he survived h the flood, he was murdered a few months after in his home, along with his brother and mother. His father survived the attack. Pierre and another man were hired to murder the Lewanski family by Milan and his followers. Although Pierre was reluctant and tried to save Louis, his accomplice shot Louis and his family. Shocked by the death of Louis, Pierre shot his accomplice before he could kill Louis's father.

However, Victor returns a few months later and witnesses the suicide circle led by Milan. This makes him the first character to return.

In Season 2, Julie learned that Milan and his followers believed that Victor was "a devil child" which is why they had him killed. It is reasonable to assume that Louis's parents knew about his ability to foresee people's deaths, since his mother often gets mad at him for drawing. Before his death, he foresaw and drew the deaths of the flood and the death of Mrs. Costa.

Although it has yet to be explained, Victor has been sighted in the past. Ten years ago, he tried to rescue one of Serge's murder victims. He was also involved in the bus accident that resulted in the deaths of 38 students, including Camille, Audrey, and Esteban. The bus swerved out of the way to prevent hitting Victor, who was standing in the middle of the road (ep. 1.1 Camille).

He is also not the biological son of the Lewsnskis'.


Victor of Rome

Who was Victor of Rome? Was he a pope? Was he faithful to the Bible or human tradition?

The generally touted Catholic position is that Victor was the fourteenth pope and that all subsequent leaders of the true church passed through him (Lopes A. The Popes: The lives of the pontiffs through 2000 years of history. Futura Edizoni, Roma, 1997, p. 5). Is that correct?

This article will refer to historical records and Roman Catholic sources to attempt to properly answer those questions.

Certain Claims

While visiting the Vatican in 2004, I purchased a book in its basilica museum bookstore titled The Popes: The lives of the pontiffs through 2000 years of history (Lopes A. The Popes: The lives of the pontiffs through 2000 years of history. Futura Edizoni, Roma, 1997). The book states that it is sponsored by the "Pontifical Administration, which has tutelage over the Patriarchal Basilica of St. Peter".

It makes many claims about the early bishops of Rome including this about Victor:

14. VICTOR I, ST. (189-199) An African. Victor tended not to advise other churches but to impose Rome's ideas on them, thus arousing resentment at times in bishops not inclined to accept such impositions. This was the case of Polycratus, the Bishop of Ephesus, who felt offended at this interference. The question was again that of Easter. Victor reaffirmed the decisions of Soter and Eleutherius both with regard to the date, which had to be a Sunday, and with regard to several customs of Jewish origin which were still practiced in some Christian communities. Polycratus justified himself before the pope with a letter containing the phrase ". it is more important to obey God rather than men" (Lopes A. The Popes: The lives of the pontiffs through 2000 years of history. Futura Edizoni, Roma, 1997, p. 5).

The Catholic Encyclopedia notes:

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa and gives his father the name of Felix.

Internal dissensions during this era affected the Church at Rome. The dispute over the celebration of Easter grew more acute. The Christians at Rome, who had come from the province of Asia, were accustomed to observe Easter on the 14th day of Nisan, whatever day of the week that date might happen to fall on, just as they had done at home. This difference inevitably led to trouble when it appeared in the Christian community of Rome. Pope Victor decided, therefore, to bring about unity in the observance of the Easter festival and to persuade the Quartodecimans to join in the general practice of the Church. He wrote, therefore, to Bishop Polycrates of Ephesus and induced the latter to call together the bishops of the province of Asia in order to discuss the matter with them. This was done but in the letter sent by Polycrates to Pope Victor he declared that he firmly held to the Quartodeciman custom observed by so many celebrated and holy bishops of that region. Victor called a meeting of Italian bishops at Rome, which is the earliest Roman synod known. He also wrote to the leading bishops of the various districts, urging them to call together the bishops of their sections of the country and to take counsel with them on the question of the Easter festival. Letters came from all sides: from the synod in Palestine, at which Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem presided from the synod of Pontus over which Palmas as the oldest presided from the communities in Gaul whose bishop of Irenaeus of Lyons from the bishops of the Kingdom of Osrhoene also from individual bishops, as Bakchylus of Corinth. These letters all unanimously reported that Easter was observed on Sunday.. Victor, who acted throughout the entire matter as the head of Catholic Christendom, now called upon the bishops of the province of Asia to abandon their custom and to accept the universally prevailing practice of always celebrating Easter on Sunday. In case they would not do this he declared they would be excluded from the fellowship of the Church.

This severe procedure did not please all the bishops. Irenaeus of Lyons and others wrote to Pope Victor they blamed his severity, urged him to maintain peace and unity with the bishops of Asia, and to entertain affectionate feelings toward them. Irenaeus reminded him that his predecessors had indeed always maintained the Sunday observance of Easter, as was right, but had not broken off friendly relations and communion with bishops because they followed another custom (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, xxiii-xxv.) We have no information concerning the further course of the matter under Victor I so far as it regards the bishops of Asia. All that is known is that in the course of the third century the Roman practice in the observance of Easter became gradually universal. In Rome itself, where Pope Victor naturally enforced the observance of Easter on Sunday by all Christians in the capital, an Oriental named Blastus, with a few followers, opposed the pope and brought about a schism, which, however, did not grow in importance (Eusebius, loc. cit., B, xx). Pope Victor also had difficulties with a Roman priest named Florinus, who probably came from Asia Minor. As an official of the imperial court, Florinus had become acquainted in Asia Minor with St. Polycarp.

Tertullian reports ("Ad Praceam", 1) that a Roman bishop, whose name he does not give, had declared his acceptance of the prophecies of Montanus, but had been persuaded by Praxeas to withdraw. Duchesne ("Histoire ancienne de l'église", I, 278) and others think Tertullian means Pope Eleutherius, but many investigators consider it more probable that he meant Pope Victor, because the latter had had much to do with the inhabitants of Asia Minor, and because, between 190 and 200 (Kirsch J.P. Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV. Copyright © 1912 by Robert Appleton Company. Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York).

So there are three issues:

1) Did the Roman Bishop Victor have the authority over other churches?
2) Did he have the authority to enforce a change based on tradition over the Bible?
3) Should he have said something against the Montanists heretics?

The correct answers, which are essentially discussed later, are 1) No, 2) No, and 3) Yes, if he was attempting to stick with biblical Christianity.

Authority over Churches to Enforce Tradition over the Bible?

Bishop Victor apparently felt that he had the authority to impose his will on the churches of Asia Minor. But they refused. It is also important to note recall that Irenaeus told Victor that he should not have tried to impose Roman traditions on the Asia Minor churches.

The Orthodox Church reports this brief explanation of events in one of its timelines:

193 A.D. - Council of Rome, presided over by Bishop Victor, condemns the celebration of Pascha on Nisan 14, and addresses a letter to Polycrates of Ephesus and the Churches in Asia.

193 A.D. - Council of Ephesus, presided over by Bishop Polycrates, and attended by several bishops throughout Asia, reject the authority of Victor of Rome, and keep the Asian paschal tradition (Markou, Stavros L. K. An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline. Copyright © 2003 OrthodoxFaith.com).

The Catholic writer Eusebius recorded that Polycrates of Ephesus, around 195 A.D. wrote the following to the Roman Bishop Victor who, as the previous writing showed, wanted all who professed Christ to change Passover from the 14th of Nisan to Sunday:

We observe the exact day neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the Lord's coming, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who fell asleep in Hierapolis and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter, who lived in the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and, being a priest, wore the sacerdotal plate. He fell asleep at Ephesus. And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr and Thraseas, bishop and martyr from Eumenia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. Why need I mention the bishop and martyr Sagaris who fell asleep in Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, or Melito, the Eunuch who lived altogether in the Holy Spirit, and who lies in Sardis, awaiting the episcopate from heaven, when he shall rise from the dead? All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith. And I also, Polycrates, the least of you all, do according to the tradition of my relatives, some of whom I have closely followed. For seven of my relatives were bishops and I am the eighth. And my relatives always observed the day when the people put away the leaven. I, therefore, brethren, who have lived sixty-five years in the Lord, and have met with the brethren throughout the world, and have gone through every Holy Scripture, am not affrighted by terrifying words. For those greater than I have said ' We ought to obey God rather than man' (Eusebius. Church History, Book V, Chapter 24. Translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series Two, Volume 1 . Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. American Edition, 1890. Online Edition Copyright © 2004 by K. Knight).

Notice that Polycrates said that he and the other early church leaders (like the Apostles Philip and John, and their successors like Polycarp, Thraseas, Sagaris, Papirius, Melito) would not deviate from the Bible, and that they knew the Bible taught them to keep the Passover on the correct date, and not on a Sunday. Polycrates also reminded the Roman bishop that true followers of Christ "obey God rather than men."

Hence it is clear that throughout the second century, the churches in Asia Minor continued to observe the Passover on the 14th of Nisan (and for doing so, they were labeled as Quartodecimans by the Romans), unlike the Romans, and they refused to accept the authority of any Roman bishop over scripture.

Perhaps the following report from the Catholic saint and doctor Jerome about Victor should also be considered:

Victor believed that the many bishops of Asia and the East, who with the Jews celebrated the passover, on the fourteenth day of the new moon, were to be condemned. But even those who differed from them did not support Victor in his opinion. (Jerome. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men), Chapter 35)

This report confirms that the Bishop of Rome simply was not seen as having primacy over Christendom at this time (see also Apostolic Succession).

Polycrates bishop of the Ephesians with other bishops of Asia who in accordance with some ancient custom celebrated the passover with the Jews on the fourteenth of the month, wrote a synodical letter against Victor bishop of Rome in which he says that he follows the authority of the apostle John and of the ancients. From this we make the following brief quotations, We therefore celebrate the day according to usage, inviolably, neither adding anything to nor taking anything from it, for in Asia lie the remains of the greatest saints of those who shall rise again on the day of the Lord, when he shall come in majesty from heaven and shall quicken all the saints, I mean Philip one of the twelve apostles who sleeps at Hierapolis and his two daughters who were virgins until their death and another daughter of his who died at Ephesus full of the Holy Spirit. And John too, who lay on Our Lord's breast and was his high priest carrying the golden frontlet on his forehead, both martyr and doctor, fell asleep at Ephesus and Polycarp bishop and martyr died at Smyrna. Thraseas of Eumenia also, bishop and martyr, rests in the same Smyrna. What need is there of mentioning Sagaris, bishop and martyr, who sleeps in Laodicea and the blessed Papyrus and Melito, eunuch in the Holy Spirit, who, ever serving the Lord, was laid to rest in Sardis and there awaits his resurrection at Christ's advent. These all observed the day of the passover on the fourteenth of the month, in nowise departing from the evangelical tradition and following the ecclesiastical canon. I also, Polycrates, the least of all your servants, according to the doctrine of my relatives which I also have followed (for there were seven of my relatives bishops indeed and I the eighth) have always celebrated the passover when the Jewish people celebrated the putting away of the leaven. And so brethren being sixty-five years old in the Lord and instructed by many brethren from all parts of the world, and having searched all the Scriptures, I will not fear those who threaten us, for my predecessors said "It is fitting to obey God rather than men. & quot

I quote this to show through a small example the genius and authority of the man. He flourished in the reign of the emperor Severus in the same period as Narcissus of Jerusalem. (Jerome. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men), Chapter 45)

This confirms that Jerome respected the fact that Polycrates would not accept the authority of a bishop of Rome over the Bible.

The True Church Was Anti-Montanist

The Montanists were not rebuked by Bishop Victor. This shows that he did not feel he had the doctrinal integrity to stand against them. No bishop of Rome was considered to have had universal authority by most professing Christians by Victor's time (even though Victor seemed to feel otherwise).

However, the church leaders in Antioch and Asia Minor took a stand against the Montanists. Serapion of Antioch, Apollonius of Ephesus, Apollinaris of Hierapolis, and Thraseas of Eumenia opposed the Montanist heresies (since Apollinaris of Hierapolis and Thraseas of Eumenia were Quartodecimans, it is likely that Serapion and many other anti-Montanists were as well). Eusebius records that:

This same Apollonius states in the same work that, at the time of his writing, it was the fortieth year since Montanus had begun his pretended prophecy.

Serapion, who, as report says, succeeded Maximinus at that time as bishop of the church of Antioch, mentions the works of Apolinarius against the above-mentioned heresy. And he alludes to him in a private letter to Caricus and Pontius, in which he himself exposes the same heresy, and adds the following words:

"That you may see that the doings of this lying band of the new prophecy, so called, are an abomination to all the brotherhood throughout the world, I have sent you writings of the most blessed Claudius Apolinarius, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia." In the same letter of Serapion the signatures of several bishops are found, one of whom subscribes himself as follows: "I, Aurelius Cyrenius, a witness, pray for your health." And another in this manner: "Aelius Publius Julius, bishop of Debeltum, a colony of Thrace. As God liveth in the heavens, the blessed Sotas in Anchialus desired to cast the demon out of Priscilla, but the hypocrites did not permit him" (Eusebius Book V, Chapters 18-19).

Of the Montanists, according to The Catholic Encyclopedia :

the date of Thraseas is therefore about 160, and the origin of Montanism must be yet earlier. We hear of no false doctrines at first. St. Jerome's account, written in 384. describes them as Sabellians in their idea of the Trinity (Chapman J. Transcribed by Robert B. Olson. Montanists. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Copyright © 1911 by Robert Appleton Company. Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York).

One of the so-called Montanist Oracles was:

"I am the Father and the Son and the Paraclete." (Didymus, De trinitate iii. 41. 1.) (Assembled in P. de Labriolle, La crise montaniste (1913), 34-105, by Bates College, Lewston (Maine) http://abacus.bates.edu/Faculty/Philosophy%20and%20Religion/rel_241/texts/montanism.html 01/31/06).

This is one of the first references to a trinitarian view of the Godhead (the other earliest one was from the heretic Valentinus). The paraclete is a term used to signify the Holy Spirit (it is from the Greek term parakletos ).

As late as the end of the second century and the beginning of the third, Roman Bishops still were not trinitarian as now understood--Victor adhered to Sabellianism--a concept that was later condemned. Notice this astonishing admission from a Protestant scholar:

Sabellius taught the strict unity of the godhead: "one Person (hypostasis), three names." God is hyiopater, Son-Father. The different names Father, Son, and Spirit, merely describe different forms of revelation the Son revealed the Father as a ray reveals the sun. Now the Son has returned to heaven, and God reveals himself as the Holy Spirit. Despite these flaws, Sabelliansim seems to have won the adherence of two bishops of Rome, Victor and Zephyrinus, both who were involved in bitter struggles with the adoptionists. Zephyrinus' successor, Callistus, repudiated Sabellius, but continued to use rather Sabellian language. The entanglement of these three bishops. has proved a continuous embarrassment to the traditionalist Roman Catholic doctrine of papal infallibility.

The modalism of Sabellius influenced later orthodox formulations in that it insisted on the deity of the Holy Spirit. By insisting that the Holy Spirit is also God, Sabellianism helped counteract the tendency to what we might call ditheism (Brown HOJ. Heresies: Heresy and Orthodoxy in the History of the Church. Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody (MA), 1988, p. 103).

If the doctrine of the trinity is so critical to being a "Christian" than why did not even the Roman bishops misunderstand it so much? Could it have been because the true Church was never Sabellian nor trinitarian? If the doctrine of the trinity was true from the beginning (which it was not), why do Protestant scholars feel the need to credit Sabellianism for insisting that the Holy Spirit is God? The simple truth is that the early true Church never considered that the Holy Spirit was God or that God was some type of trinity.

Notice that Sabellianism was condemned from the start in Asia Minor, then decades later in Rome according to Roman Catholic scholars:

Yet further evidence regarding the Church's doctrine is furnished by a comparison of her teaching with that of heretical sects. The controversy with the Sabellians in the third century proves conclusively that she would tolerate no deviation from Trinitarian doctrine. Noetus of Smyrna, the originator of the error, was condemned by a local synod, about A.D. 200. Sabellius, who propagated the same heresy at Rome c. A.D. 220, was excommunicated by St. Callistus (Joyce GH. The Blessed Trinity. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York ).

It should be noted that the above writing is a bit in error. While it is true that the Church in Asia Minor (Symrna) would not tolerate Sabellian heresy from the beginning, the Roman Catholic Church did until around 220 A.D. (this is further proof that the Location of the Main Early True Church Was Asia Minor, Not Rome).

Since the true Church of God is binitarian, it is logical that any affiliated with it would have opposed any trinitarian or Sabellian teachings. Roman leaders seemed to be tolerant of the Montanists until sometime after Serapion and others in Asia Minor condemned them (Rome finally condemned the Montanists, but not for this doctrine, and not by Victor) and the same is apparently true of Sabellianism.

Was He A Pope?

Technically, Victor was not a pope. The Catholic leaders in Rome did not take that title until after Siricius of the late fourth century. However, he was perhaps the first to try to act like one. And he was not highly successful at that time. This shows that the idea that all of professing Christendom from the time of Linus until at least the early third century accepting the rule of a "Roman bishop" is false.

This is essentially confirmed by the fact that the successor to Victor, Zephyrinus (bishop from 199-217), was "not exceptionally learned or cultured" and was criticized for "not being determined enough to fight the Montantist heresy" (Lopes, p.5). And that the first "anti-pope", Hyppolitus, was elected in the time of Zephyrinus' successor Callistus (Lopes, p.6). It is not likely that any would have then elected an "anti-pope" if they felt that the proper bishop inherited the cathedra from Peter through Linus, etc. Furthermore, it is of interest to note that even today, the first "anti-pope" is considered to be a saint by the Roman Catholics, hence they must of felt he was a true Christian leader.

And all of this shows that there were no popes, as we now understand both the title and the position, until at least sometime in the third century.

Was Victor Peter's Spiritual Successor?

While I believe that the records of early church history show that Polycarp of Smyrna was the true and most influential leader of the Church of God after the last apostle (John) died, most who claim to be Roman Catholic believe that Linus, then eventually Bishop Victor, was the actual successor. Conclusions tend to depends on how one views tradition and the Bible. (An article of related interest may be Apostolic Succession.)

There was a Roman Catholic bishop named Victor. He ruled against the Bible on the subject of Passover and attempted to impose his will on other churches, but those in Asia Minor (and apparently also Antioch) refused to accept it.

There is no evidence that he ever overturned tradition to favor the Bible--he seemed to make the opposite argument. Because of certain Montanist heresies he would not address, that also suggests he held a non-biblical view of Christianity. That is not acceptable to those of us in the Church of God, but does seem to be sufficient for those who accept that and other unbiblical doctrines.


Victor Moulton

Victor Moulton, better-known in rock circles and to record collectors as the legendary Moulty of the Barbarians, is an enigmatic figure whose appearance on the Nuggets vinyl and CD compilations only added…
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Artist Biography by Joe Viglione

Victor Moulton, better-known in rock circles and to record collectors as the legendary Moulty of the Barbarians, is an enigmatic figure whose appearance on the Nuggets vinyl and CD compilations only added to his mystique. The Barbarians formed on Cape Cod, MA, in the early '60s, were touted as America's Rolling Stones, and with appearances on TV's Shindig, as well as in the film The T.A.M.I. Show with the Stones, the Supremes, Lesley Gore, Chuck Berry, James Brown, and others, they could have been just that. Under the aegis of record producer/music executive Doug Morris, the band had a couple of songs to go along with their image and sound. After their 1965 release on Laurie, the album originally entitled The Barbarians (now on CD as Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl?), along with the follow-up autobiographical hit "Moulty" (included on the CD re-releases of the album debut), the group switched to Mercury to record a still unreleased album and then disbanded. The single "Moulty" was essentially Moulton in New York with members of Bob Dylan's band the Hawks, and Doug Morris at the helm again. The song was written by Morris, Eliot Greenberg, Barbara Baer, and Robert Schwartz, and was released without the consent of the band, a fact that may have led to the defection to Mercury. The Nuggets compilation hinted that it may have been some of the musicians from Levon & the Hawks performing with Moulty and, indeed, Moulton verified this in 1995 on the Boston-area program Visual Radio-Television, show number 18.

The rumors of business conflict and allegations of battles with the record executive(s) over the release of the single "Moulty" only added to the legend, especially after the single charted and met with great audience response. The song was about the loss of Moulton's hand through an accident with a pipe bomb in 1959 at the age of 14, which resulted in a prosthetic hand. The metallic claw resembling Captain Hook from Peter Pan was certainly a striking image for a rebellious rock and roller, and the fact that Moulty is a truly great drummer and front man brought punk credibility to the group years after their initial fame. What was missing on the first album, though, was solid original music beyond the singles, something that changed when Moulton brought a new version of the Barbarians into Intermedia Studios on Boylston Street in Boston, circa 1973. This is the facility where Aerosmith cut "Dream On" with producer Adrian Barber and where Jonathan Edwards' "Sunshine (Go Away)" was recorded, and the five-song tape showed something that was missing on the original collector's item vinyl LP: a depth in the songwriting department. Moulton's second wife, Chris Moulton, performs piano with him on the tracks, which include a cover of Gary "U.S." Bonds' "Seven Day Weekend," as well as originals"Boogie Rock," "Only in My World," "Rock and Roll Man," and a fifth title that Moulton refuses to release for personal reasons, "Three Strange Men." "Rock and Roll Man" and "Only in My World" were released on U.S. Anthology 2/Boston Rock & Roll Anthology, Vol. 20, along with music by Harriet Schock, Third Rail, and Jonzun Crew guitarist Tony "Rock" Cownas. In 2002, Moulty has added the four above referenced tracks to his own personal copies of the Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl? album.

After the early '70s recordings, sightings of Moulton and the other Barbarians were rare. During the new wave of the mid-'70s, Moulton wrote the A-side of a single for the band Cat's Ass. In an exclusive interview on March 20, 2002, Moulton told All Media Guide "The song "Mexico" was written for my friend Bruce Silver (to perform)." Silver passed away in 1999 in a freak boating accident while on vacation with his wife, and the single was one of the few appearances of a new Moulty song on record during the '70s. In the 1990s, a new version of the Barbarians began performing in New England, son Tory Moulton from his first marriage, and Eric Moulton, his son by Chris, are joined on-stage by twin brothers Ken Olson and Karl Olson. They performed at the Cape Cod Melody Tent in Hyannis in 1995, as well as at the Wonderland Ballroom in Revere, MA, circa 1996. The Wonderland Ballroom show was videotaped for Visual Radio-Television, as was the re-mastering session of the 1973 demo tape. The final gig of the reconstituted Barbarians was at the end of the '90s on the Waterfront of Plymouth, MA.

Searches on the Internet bring up different compilations, including a Time/Life 20 Great Hits of the 60s package and the Rhino four-CD Nuggets box, along with the re-release of the first album on One Way and Sundazed. Interesting articles, like Jan Hoiberg's Norwegian website for the Band, can also be found, that site referencing the information regarding the "Moulty" single, the transcript of his 1995 television interview first published in the July 1998 issue of Discoveries Magazine, and other information gathered by fans.


5 Truly Terrifying Ghost Stories That Prove Jerome Is The Most Haunted City In Arizona

If you ask anyone in Arizona the location of the spookiest town, chances are they will point you towards Jerome. The old mining town certainly looks like it could be haunted with its winding streets, weathered buildings, and other areas of the town slowly decaying.

Given that Halloween is just around the corner, now is as good a time as ever to hear a few ghost stories. Today, we’re going to focus on stories that originate from Arizona’s Ghost City that may cause the hairs on the back of your neck to rise. Enjoy!

You’ll hear of multiple hauntings that occur in this hotel, which was built in 1898, including spooky occurrences happening in the bar area and in the hotel rooms upstairs. But rooms 1 and 2 are rife with ghostly activity, which includes everything from hearing the radio randomly turn on (even when unplugged) and spotting figures standing in the room at odd hours. However, there is at least one gruesome story that happened here.

Anna Hopkins, the wife of the local mining company’s chief engineer, believed that her husband was in some kind of relationship with a local schoolteacher and decided to enact revenge herself. In 1922, Hopkins threw carbolic acid into the face of the teacher in the downstairs cafe of the Connor Hotel. The stories are a little hazy as to what happened to the teacher some say she survived her injuries and relocated to Spokane, where she later died while other stories state that the teacher suffered a painful death a few weeks later as a result of her injuries. What we do know, however, is that a few months later Hopkins was convicted of assault for the incident.

At one point in time, prostitutes could be found throughout Jerome, when brothels were located right next to saloons and women could walk throughout the town to “advertise” their business. Eventually, these businesses were re-located in the streets behind Main and these became known as the old Cribs District or “Husband’s Alley.” These businesses were located right behind the saloons, where men could get a few drinks, gamble, then sneak right out the back door for another kind of entertainment.

Sex work operated on a hierarchical scale. At the high end of the scale were classy ladies who worked in brothels operated by madams who had a pretty cushy job. They often only provided (expensive) companionship for lonely men living in a town almost devoid of women, and had access to healthcare, security, and education. At the low end of the scale were women working in the cribs, who somehow managed to see 30 to 80 clients per day. It was a rough job that had no guarantees or safety and many women who worked in the industry succumbed to the illnesses or violence associated with the job.

There are many stories about the horrors these sex workers endured and history just barely remembers a few who died at the hands of their clients. One woman, named Sammie Dean, died after being strangled in 1931 by the son of a powerful member of town. She is said to haunt the building she previously lived in and there’s no doubt that the spirits of other women who died from similar fates still linger in the area.

Jerome’s famous old hospital turned hotel is often called the most haunted place in town. Built in 1926 as the United Verde Hospital, this was actually the fourth hospital to be built in town and operated until 1950. It maintains a spooky presence in town, sitting on the hill above any other building and can be seen from nearby communities like Clarkdale.

As the hospital of an old mining town, there’s no doubt this building saw a lot of horror and a lot of deaths during its 24 years of operation and hotel guests regularly report numerous incidents. These include everything from hearing keys attempting to unlock doors, items moving in the rooms, sounds typically heard in hospitals, and other odd occurrences.

One haunting in particular comes from the hospital’s old maintenance man, Claude Harvey, who was found dead in 1935 from a gruesome elevator accident. Some of the hotel workers report hearing or even briefly seeing Harvey still at work in the floors downtown stairs.

Once upon a time, mining jobs were both lucrative and extremely dangerous. While death rarely occurred inside the mine, it wasn’t uncommon for miners to die from injuries sustained during the job. These usually occur in jobs associated with explosions but any injury that involved something like leg amputation would probably result in death a few months later after infections invaded the body.

According to some people, miners still haunt their old work place, including the spirit of Headless Charlie. You can probably guess that Charlie lost a certain body part during a mining accident and a tale is told that he wanders the old mine in search of it. The mine is currently closed and off-limits, so you’re unlikely to run into him but if you somehow find yourself near an abandoned mine shaft, definitely don’t enter.

Jerome’s first silent film theatre happens to be in pretty good condition. from the inside. The original signage from the Liberty Theatre is long gone but you’ll find the upstairs floors laid out the same way as when it closed in 1929. This building is supposedly haunted by the ghost of a former patron. The woman immigrated to the United States from Germany and was involved in a passionate, though tumultuous, relationship with another immigrant that eventually ended in her death.

Following an argument, the woman left to calm down while watching a movie. Little did she know that her boyfriend followed her to the theatre and sat behind her during the movie. He waited until a particularly loud scene when the organ music thundered through the theatre and strangled her to death. The woman’s ghost is said to haunt the upper floor of the theatre.

Those stories were pretty creepy! I would recommend checking out one of the many historical tours offered in the town, such as those provided by Ghost Town Tours for detailed accounts of various haunted places in Jerome and a chance to “search” for a ghost. Do you have any similar experiences from visiting Jerome or other parts of the state? If you want to explore other areas in Arizona that are known to be haunted, check out our article that features some spooky ghost tours.


Inactive License

    According to the Michigan Department of Licensing & Regulatory Affairs, the status of this license was at one point cancelled. However, this information may have changed. If this is your business, please update your license status.

    According to the Michigan Department of Licensing & Regulatory Affairs, the status of this license was at one point cancelled. However, this information may have changed. If this is your business, please update your license status.

Michigan requires contractors performing any work on residential properties to be licensed with the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs.

Lisabeth Victor Jerome currently holds license 2105190413, 2101072878 (Builders Salesperson, Builder Individual), which was Inactive when we last checked.

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Ver el vídeo: Jeronimo Victor- Natown Podcast - #004