Delphy DD- 261 - Historia

Delphy DD- 261 - Historia


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Delphy

Richard Delphy fue nombrado guardiamarina el 18 de mayo de 1809 y sirvió con distinción en Estados Unidos durante el enfrentamiento con el HMS Macedonian el 25 de octubre de 1812. Murió en la acción en la que Argus triunfó sobre el HMS Pelilan el 14 de agosto de 1813.

(DD-261: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5 "; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'3 "; s. 35 k .; cpl. 120; a. 4 4", 2 3 ", 4 21 "tt .; cl Clemson)

Delphy (DD-261) fue lanzado el 18 de julio de 1918 por Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass .; patrocinado por la Sra. W. S. Sims, esposa del Contralmirante Sims y comisionado el 30 de noviembre de 1918, comandante R. A. Dawes al mando.

Antes de unirse a la Flota del Atlántico, Delphy probó dispositivos de detección submarina en New London del 23 al 31 de diciembre de 1918 y ayudó a los supervivientes del Pacífico Norte, varados en Fire Island, NY, el día de Año Nuevo de 1919. Delphy zarpó de Nueva York el 13 de enero para maniobras invernales y práctica de torpedos en el Caribe. Al regresar a Nueva York el 14 de abril con la Flota, zarpó hacia Boston el último día del mes para las operaciones en preparación para el primer vuelo transatlántico en hidroavión.

Delphy zarpó el 19 de noviembre de 1919 desde Boston hacia la costa oeste y llegó a San Diego el 22 de diciembre. Se unió a los Escuadrones Destructores de la Flota del Pacífico en San Diego para la práctica de torpedos y la recuperación hasta que la pusieron en reserva el 12 de junio. Delphy permaneció en San Diego hasta el 27 de diciembre, cuando navegó con los otros barcos de la División de Destructores de Reserva para Bremerton, Washington, y llegó el 4 de enero de 1921 para una revisión extendida en Puget Sound Navy Yard.

Entre el 22 de julio de 1921 y el 20 de marzo de 1922, Delphy operó desde San Diego con el 50 por ciento de su complemento, luego fue reacondicionada. Navegó con la Flota de la Batalla 1 para ejercicios frente a Balboa del 6 de febrero al 11 de abril de 1923, luego llevó a cabo experimentos con torpedos frente a San Diego. El 25 de junio se sumergió bajo el agua con la División de Destructores 31 para un crucero a Washington para maniobras de verano con la Flota de Batalla en el pasaje de regreso. Delphy fue el principal destructor de siete que quedaron varados en las rocas de la costa de California cerca de Point Pedernales en un clima inclemente el 8 de septiembre. Delphy se estrelló de costado y se partió por la mitad, su popa debajo de la superficie, sufriendo tres muertos y 15 heridos. Fue dada de baja el 26 de octubre de 1923 y vendida como un naufragio el 19 de octubre de 1925.


Delphy DD- 261 - Historia

Esta página presenta y proporciona enlaces a todas las vistas que tenemos del USS Delphy (DD-261) después de su pérdida.

Si desea reproducciones de mayor resolución que las imágenes digitales presentadas aquí, consulte: & quot Cómo obtener reproducciones fotográficas & quot.

Haga clic en la fotografía pequeña para abrir una vista más grande de la misma imagen.

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la zona del desastre, mirando hacia el norte, vista desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3). Se ven seis de los siete destructores que encalló en Honda Point durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Son:
USS Fuller (DD-297), a la izquierda
USS Woodbury (DD-309), justo por delante de Fuller
USS Young (DD-312), volcó en el centro de la vista
USS Chauncey (DD-296), en posición vertical justo por delante de Young
USS Nicholas (DD-311), más allá de las rocas en el centro
y USS Delphy (DD-261), zozobró en la pequeña cala entre Chauncey y Nicholas.
El barco restante, el USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), está fuera de la vista detrás del punto rocoso, a popa de Nicholas.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 76 KB, 740 x 560 píxeles

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la zona del desastre, mostrando los siete destructores que encalló en la niebla durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Fotografiado desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3).
Los barcos son: USS Nicholas (DD-311), en el centro izquierdo
USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), a popa de Nicholas
USS Delphy (DD-261), zozobró en una pequeña cala (centro)
USS Young (DD-312), volcó en el centro de la vista
USS Chauncey (DD-296), en posición vertical delante de Young
USS Woodbury (DD-309) en las rocas del centro
y USS Fuller (DD-297), el más cercano a la cámara.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 99 KB 740 x 610 píxeles

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la zona del desastre, que muestra los siete destructores que encalló en Honda Point durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Fotografiado desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3).
Los barcos son: USS Nicholas (DD-311), en la parte superior izquierda
USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), a popa de Nicholas
USS Delphy (DD-261), zozobró en el centro izquierdo
USS Young (DD-312), volcó en el centro de la vista
USS Chauncey (DD-296), en posición vertical delante de Young
USS Woodbury (DD-309) en las rocas del centro
y USS Fuller (DD-297), en el centro inferior.
La estación Honda de Southern Pacific Railway está en la esquina superior izquierda.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 113 KB, 740 x 605 píxeles

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la parte sur de la zona del desastre, que muestra cinco de los siete destructores que encalló en Honda Point durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Fotografiado desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3). Los barcos visibles son:
USS Delphy (DD-261), zozobró en la pequeña cala de la izquierda
USS Young (DD-312), zozobró en el centro izquierdo
USS Chauncey (DD-296), en posición vertical delante de Young
USS Woodbury (DD-309) en las rocas en el centro derecho
y USS Fuller (DD-297) en las rocas a la derecha.
La estación Honda de Southern Pacific Railway está en el medio superior.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 83 KB 740 x 605 píxeles

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la parte sur de la zona del desastre, mostrando cuatro de los siete destructores que encalló en Honda Point durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Fotografiado desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3).
Los barcos visibles son el USS Delphy (DD-261), volcado en la parte inferior izquierda del USS Chauncey (DD-296), en posición vertical más allá del Delphy USS Young (DD-312), volcado a popa de Chauncey y USS Woodbury (DD-309) a la derecha.
El faro de Point Arguello está en la distancia del centro.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 102 KB, 740 x 575 píxeles

Desastre de Honda Point, septiembre de 1923

Vista aérea de la zona del desastre, mirando hacia el oeste, vista desde un avión asignado al USS Aroostook (CM-3). Se ven cinco de los siete destructores que encalló en Honda Point durante la noche del 8 de septiembre de 1923. Son:
USS Fuller (DD-297), más allá de la pequeña isla rocosa del centro
USS Woodbury (DD-309), justo por delante de Fuller
USS Chauncey (DD-296), más cercano a la cámara
USS Young (DD-312), volcó a popa de Chauncey
y USS Delphy (DD-261), apenas visible, zozobró un poco más allá de la costa a la derecha.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval. Colección del almirante William V. Pratt.


Contenido

los Destructor No. 261 funcionó el 18 de julio de 1918 en Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. en Squantum, Massachusetts y fue bautizado Delphy por la esposa del almirante William S. Sims. El 30 de noviembre de 1918, el destructor fue comisionado al mando del comandante RA Dawes. Fue el primer destructor que se completó en el recién construido Squantum Victory Yard.

Una de las primeras tareas del nuevo destructor fue probar nuevas herramientas de detección de submarinos en New London. Al igual que el 1 de enero de 1919, el transporte marítimo Pacífico norte en el fuego Islandia corrió con 2.481 soldados a bordo porque pertenecía Delphy A los barcos auxiliares de la Armada, los abgeborgenen con pequeños soldados cazadores de submarinos de la furgoneta siniestrada en el se apoderaron de los días siguientes y los llevaron a Nueva York. El 13 de enero, el destructor salió de Nueva York nuevamente para participar en las maniobras invernales en el Caribe y practicar disparos de torpedos agudos. El destructor regresó a Nueva York el 14 de abril. A finales de este mes, el Delphy se trasladó a Boston para participar en la obtención del primer vuelo transatlántico.

El 19 de noviembre de 1919, el Delphy luego salió de Boston para trasladarse a la costa oeste de Estados Unidos. El barco llegó a San Diego el 22 de diciembre. Allí el destructor fue utilizado en la práctica de lanzamiento de torpedos y asignado a la reserva el 12 de junio de 1920. Después de Navidad, el destructor se trasladó con otros destructores de la reserva a Bremerton en el estado de Washington, donde el buque fue reacondicionado a partir del 4 de enero de 1921 en el Patio de la Marina de Puget Sound. Del 22 de julio de 1921 al 20 de marzo de 1922 el Delphy fue en San Diego para fines de capacitación con una tripulación regular del 50% nuevamente para fines de capacitación, esto fue seguido por una escala en el astillero. Posteriormente puesto de nuevo en servicio, el destructor acompañó a la flota de batalla a las maniobras frente a Panamá y operó desde Balboa del 6 de febrero al 11 de abril de 1923. Estos ejercicios fueron seguidos por pruebas de torpedos frente a San Diego. El 25 de junio, el destructor corrió nuevamente en el Destructor División 31 a Washington para maniobras de verano con la flota de batalla.


Delphy được đặt lườn vào ngày 20 tháng 4 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu Squantum Victory Yard của hãng Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation ở Squantum, Massachusetts. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 18 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi bà WS Sims, phu nhân Chuẩn đô đốc William Sims và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 30 tháng 11 nà hum trền dn Hải quân RA Dawes.

Trước khi gia nhập Hạm đội Đại Tây Dương, Delphy tham gia thử nghiệm các thiết bị phát hiện tàu ngầm tại New London, Connecticut từ ngày 23 đến ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 1918, và đã tham gia cứu giúp những người sống sót trên chiếc Pacífico Norte bị mắc cạn ngoài khơi đảo Fire, Nueva York vào ngày đầu năm mới 1919. Nó khởi hành từ Nueva York vào ngày 13 tháng 1 cho đợt cơ động và thực tập ngư lông bi tểi Đ. Cùng với hạm đội quay trở về Nueva York vào ngày 14 tháng 4, nó lên đường đi Boston, Massachusetts vào ngày cuối tháng cho các hoạt động chuẩn bị cho chuyến bay vượt Đại Tây Dươn trongi c cu 4.

Delphy khởi hành từ Boston vào ngày 19 tháng 11 năm 1919 để đi cantó vùng bờ Tây, đi đến San Diego, California vào ngày 22 tháng 12. Nó gia nhập Hải đội Khu trục trực thuộc Thuộc Thih Hạm ì ngư lôi và cứu hộ cho đến khi được đưa về lực lượng dự bị vào ngày 12 tháng 6. No neo đậu tại San Diego cho đến ngày 27 tháng 12, khi nó lên đường cùng các con tàu khác đi Bremerton, Washington, đến nơi vào ngày 4 tháng 1 năm 1921 cho một đợt đại tu kéo dài tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound.

Từ ngày 22 tháng 7 năm 1921 đến ngày 20 tháng 3 năm 1922, Delphy hoạt động từ San Diego với một biên chế cắt giảm 50% thủy thủ đoàn, trước khi trải qua một đợt đai tu khác. Nó di chuyển cùng với Hạm đội Chiến trận để thực hành ngoài khơi Balboa, Panamá từ ngày 6 tháng 2 đến ngày 11 tháng 4 năm 1923, rồi tiến hành các th Sanử nghiim ngà. Vào ngày 25 tháng 6, nó lên đường cùng với Đội khu trục 31 cho một chuyến đi đến Washington, nơi nó thực tập cơ động mùa Hè cùng Hạm đội Chiến trận trên đường quay.

Dưới quyền của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân Donald T. Hunter, Delphy là chiếc khu trục dẫn đầu của một đội bảy tàu khu trục bị đắm do va chạm đá ngầm dọc bờ biển California trong hoàn cảnh sương mù dày đặc vào ngày 8 n ti 2 năm. họa punto de Honda. Delphy bị va vào bên mạn và bị vỡ làm đôi, đuôi tàu bị ngập bên dưới mực nước. Ba thành viên thủy thủ đoàn đã thiệt mạng và 15 người khác bị thương trong tai nạn này. Nó được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 26 tháng 10 năm 1923, và lườn tàu bị bán như một xác tàu đắm vào ngày 19 tháng 10 năm 1925.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Der Destructor No. 261 lief am 18. Juli 1918 bei der Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. en Squantum (Massachusetts) vom Stapel und wurde auf den Namen Delphy von der Ehefrau des Admirals William S. Sims getauft. 30 de noviembre de 1918 wurde der Zerstörer unter Commander R. A. Dawes en Dienst gestellt. Sie war der erste Zerstörer, der auf dem neuerrichteten Squantum Victory Yard fertiggestellt wurde. [1]

Eine der ersten Aufgaben des neuen Zerstörers war der Test neuer Hilfsmittel zur Entdeckung von U-Booten en New London. Als am 1 de enero de 1919 der Marine-Transporter Pacífico norte bei Fire Island mit 2.481 Soldaten an Bord auf Grund lief [2], gehörte die Delphy zu den Hilfsschiffen der Navy, die von dem havarierten Transporter die mit kleinen U-Boot-Jägern abgeborgenen Soldaten in den folgenden Tagen übernahmen und nach New York brachten. Am 13. Januar verließ der Zerstörer wieder Nueva York, um in der Karibik an den Winter-Manövern teilzunehmen und scharfes Torpedoschießen zu üben. 14 de abril. Kehrte der Zerstörer dann New York zurück. Ende dieses Monats verlegte morir Delphy nach Boston, um an der Sicherung des ersten Transatlantikfluges teilzunehmen. [3]

Am 19 de noviembre de 1919 verließ die Delphy dann Boston, um an die amerikanische Westküste zu verlegen. Am 22. Dezember erreichte das Schiff dann San Diego. Dort wurde der Zerstörer bei Übungs-Torpedoschießen eingesetzt und am 12. Junio ​​de 1920 der Reserve zugeordnet. Nach Weihnachten verlegte der Zerstörer mit anderen Zerstörern der Reserve nach der Bremerton im Bundesstaat Washington, wo das Schiff ab dem 4. Enero 1921 en Puget Sound Navy Yard überholt wurde. Vom 22 de julio de 1921 bis zum 20. Muere de guerra de marzo de 1922 Delphy en San Diego zu Ausbildungszwecken mit einer 50% Stamm-Mannschaft wieder zu Ausbildungszwecken im Dienst daran schloss sich wieder eine Werftliegezeit an. Anschließend wieder in Dienst gestellt, begleitete der Zerstörer die Schlachtflotte zu Manövern vor Panama und operierte aus Balboa vom 6. Februar bis zum 11. April 1923. An diese Übungen schlossen sich Erprobungen von Torpedos vor San Diego an. Am 25. Juni lief der Zerstörer dann in der Destructor División 31 wieder nach Washington für Sommermanöver mit der Schlachtflotte. [3]

Auf der Rückreise führte die Delphy mit dem Geschwaderkommandeur, Capitán Edward H. Watson, un Bord. Das Geschwader bestand aus 14 Schiffen, die alle der Clemson-Klasse angehörten und jünger als fünf Jahre waren. Watson befand sich auf dem Zerstörer USS Delphy (DD-261), der die Linie anführte. Auf dem Weg von San Francisco nach San Diego in Kalifornien drehten die Schiffe am 8. Septiembre um 21:00 Uhr nach Osten auf einen Kurs von 095 °, um den Santa Barbara Channel anzusteuern. Die Navigation beruhte auf Kopplung. Zwar verfügte morir Delphy über eine Funkpeileinrichtung, jedoch vertraute man dieser neuen Technik nicht und hielt die Peilungen für fehlerhaft. Auch verzichtete man auf Lotungen der Wassertiefe, weil man dafür die Geschwindigkeit hätte reduzieren müssen und weil die Schiffe Übungen unter Kriegsbedingungen durchführten und die Fahrt mit hoher Geschwindigkeit für den herrschenden Nebel fort. Delphy führte die Reihe der Zerstörer von der Spitze und bemerkte zu spät, das dieses Manöver zu früh eingeleitet world war und das die Zerstörer mit zu hoher Fahrt auf die sehr viel nähere Küste und vorgelagerte Inseln und Felsspitzen zufuhren. Die Zerstörer liefen fälschlich auf Felsen vor der kalifornischen Küste zu, da sie näher an der Küste standen und nicht so weit im Süden waren, wie gekoppelt. Trotz aller Alarmierungsbemühungen strandeten sieben Zerstörer vor der Küste und gingen verloren. [4]
siehe Schiffskatastrophe bei Honda Point

Morir Delphy lief breitseits auf und zerbrach, ein Teil des Hecks blieb unter Wasser. Drei Mann der Crew starben und 15 Mann wurden verletzt. [3] Der aufgelaufene Zerstörer wurde am 26. Oktober 1923 außer Dienst gestellt und das Wrack am 19. Oktober 1925 verkauft. [5]

  • Die anderen bei Honda Point verlorenen Zerstörer, siehe USS S.P. Lee (DD-310)
  • Die Zerstörer, die den Unfall überstanden, die alle sieben in Kalifornien bei der Bethlehem Steel-Tochter Union Iron Works en San Francisco, julio de 1918 y septiembre de 1920, entstanden waren:
  • Anthony Preston, Randal Gray (Director): Buques de combate de todo el mundo de Conway 1906-1921. Conway Maritime Press Ltd, Londres 1985, ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  1. ↑ destructores abcCLEMSON (1918-1922)
  2. ↑ Pacífico Norte DANFS
  3. ↑ abcDelphy (Destructor No. 261)
  4. ↑ Desastre Point Pedernales
  5. ↑ USS DELPHY (DD-261)
  6. Percival Yo (Destructor No. 298)
  7. Farragut II (Destructor No. 300) 1920-1930
  8. Somers IV (Destructor No. 301)
  9. Stoddert (Destructor No. 302)
  10. Thompson I (Destructor No. 305) 1919-1930
  11. ↑ EX-USS THOMPSON
  12. Kennedy (Destructor No. 306)
  13. Paul Hamilton Yo (Destructor No. 307)

Clemson | Dahlgren | Goldsborough | Semmes | Satterlee | Masón | Graham | Abel P. Upshur | Cazar | Welborn C. Wood | George E. Badger | Rama | Herndon | Dallas | Velero | Southard | Hovey | Largo | Broome | Alden | Smith Thompson | Pregonero | Tracy | Borie | John D. Edwards | Whipple | Parrott | Edsall | MacLeish | Simpson | Bulmer | McCormick | Stewart | Papa | Peary | Pillsbury | John D. Ford | Truxtun | Paul Jones | Hatfield | Arroyos | Gilmer | zorro | Kane | Humphreys | McFarland | James K. Paulding | Overton | Sturtevant | Niños | Rey | Playa | Williamson | Reuben James | Bainbridge | Goff | Barry | Hopkins | Lawrence | Belknap | McCook | McCalla | Rodgers | Osmond Ingram | Bancroft | Welles | Aulick | Tornero | Gillis | Delphy | McDermut | Laub | McLanahan | Edwards | Greene | Ballard | Shubrick | Muralla exterior | Thornton | Morris | Tingey | Swasey | Meade | Sinclair | McCawley | temperamental | Henshaw | Meyer | Decano | Sharkey | Toucey | Breck | Isherwood | Caso | Lardner | Putnam | Worden | Flusser | Valle | Conversar | Reid | Billingsley | Charles Ausburn | Osborne | Chauncey | Batán | Percival | John Francis Burnes | Farragut | Somers | Stoddert | Reno | Farquhar | Thompson | Kennedy | Paul Hamilton | William Jones | Woodbury | S. P. Lee | Nicolás | Joven | Zeilin | Yarborough | La Vallette | Sloat | Madera | Eludir | Kidder | Selfridge | Marcus | Mervine | perseguir | Robert Smith | Mullany | Coghlan | Preston | Lamson | Bruce | Cáscara | Macdonough | Farenholt | Sumner | Corry | Melvin | Litchfield | Zane | Wasmuth | Trever | Sidra de pera | Decatur | Hulbert | Noa | William B. Preston | Preble | Sicard | Pruitt


Rušilec je bil ukaz ladje eskadre rušilcev, ki je bila vpletena v nesrečo s Honda Pointu največji mirnodobno izgubo Vojne mornarice zda, medtem ko je nasedlo sedem rušilcev.

  • DD - 129 - USS Delphy DD - 261 - USS Dennis J. Buckley DD - 808 - USS Dent DD - 116 - USS Denver - USS Denver C - 14 - USS Denver CL - 58 - USS Denver LPD - 9
  • DD - 129 - USS Delphy DD - 261 - USS Dennis J. Buckley DD - 808 - USS Dent DD - 116 - USS Denver - USS Denver C - 14 - USS Denver CL - 58 - USS Denver LPD - 9
  • Turner DD - 260 Gillis DD - 261 Delphy DD - 262 McDermut DD - 263 Laub DD - 264 McLanahan DD - 265 Edwards DD - 266 Greene DD - 267 Ballard DD - 268 Shubrick

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uss delphy (dd-261), škrbine o vojaških plovilih. uss delphy (dd-261),

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Contenido

VQ20DE Editar

Este motor V6 DOHC de 24 válvulas y 2.0 L (1.995 cc) tiene un diámetro y una carrera de 76 mm × 73,3 mm (2,99 pulg. × 2,89 pulg.) Respectivamente, junto con una relación de compresión que va de 9,5 a 10,0: 1. Produce 150 PS (110 kW 148 hp) a 160 PS (118 kW 158 hp) a 6400 rpm y 137 a 145 lb⋅ft (186 a 197 N⋅m) a 4400 rpm (combustión pobre).

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 1994-2003 Nissan Cefiro A32 y A33
  • 1995-1999 Nissan QX A32
  • 2000-2005 Hongqi Century Star - basado en Hongqi CA7180 y 7202 Audi 100 basado

VQ23DE Editar

los VQ23DE es un motor de 2.3 L (2349 cc) equipado con CVTC (Control de sincronización de válvulas continuamente variable). El diámetro y la carrera son de 85 mm × 69 mm (3,35 pulg. × 2,72 pulg.), Con una relación de compresión de 9,8: 1. Produce 173 PS (127 kW 171 hp) a 6000 rpm y 166 libras · pie (225 N · m) a 4400 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 2003-2008 Nissan Teana 230JM-J31 (Neo VQ23)
  • 2006-2011 Renault Samsung SM7 177 PS (130 kW 175 hp) (Neo VQ23)
  • 2008-2011 Renault Safrane 177 PS (130 kW 175 hp) (Neo VQ23)

VQ25DE Editar

Este motor es similar al VQ20DE, pero tiene una cilindrada de 2.5 L (2.496 cc). El diámetro y la carrera son de 85 mm × 73,3 mm (3,35 pulgadas × 2,89 pulgadas), con una relación de compresión de 9,8 a 10,3: 1. Produce 190 a 210 PS (140 a 154 kW 187 a 207 hp) a 6400 rpm y 174 a 195 lb⋅ft (236 a 264 N⋅m) de torque. Las versiones posteriores producen 186 PS (137 kW 183 hp) a 6000 rpm y 171 lb⋅ft (232 N⋅m) a 3200 rpm. En algunos Nissan, este motor fue reemplazado por el QR25DE.

  • 1994-1998 Nissan Cefiro (A32)
  • 2000-2003 Nissan Cefiro (A33)
  • 1996-1999 Nissan Leopard (año fiscal 33)
  • 1997-1999 Nissan Cedric (Y33)
  • 2004-2007 Nissan Fuga (Y50)
  • 2004-2007 Infiniti M (Y50)
  • 2004-2010 Nissan Elgrand (E51)
  • 2008-2011 Nissan Teana (J32)
  • 2010-presente Renault Samsung SM5 (L43) 178 PS (131 kW 176 hp)
  • 2010-presente Renault Latitude (L43) 178 PS (131 kW 176 hp)

VQ25DET Editar

los VQ25DET es un motor turboalimentado de 2.5 L (2.495 cc) con CVTC. El diámetro y la carrera son de 85 mm × 73,3 mm (3,35 pulgadas × 2,89 pulgadas), con una relación de compresión de 8,5: 1. Produce 280 PS (206 kW 276 hp) a 6400 rpm y 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) a 3200 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

VQ30DE Editar

El 3.0 L (2.987 cc) VQ30DE tiene un diámetro y carrera de 93 mm × 73,3 mm (3,66 pulg. × 2,89 pulg.) respectivamente con una relación de compresión de 10,0: 1. Produce 193 PS (142 kW 190 hp) a 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp) a 6400 rpm y 205 a 217 lb⋅ft (278 a 294 N⋅m) a 4400 rpm. El VQ30DE estuvo en la lista de los 10 mejores motores de Ward desde 1995 hasta 2001. Es un diseño de bloque de plataforma abierta de aluminio con partes internas microacabadas y un peso relativamente liviano.

Una versión mejorada del VQ30DE se conoce con la designación VQ30DE-K. La designación K significa la palabra japonesa kaizen que se traduce como "mejora". El motor se usó en el Nissan Maxima 2000-2001 y agrega un verdadero colector de admisión de dos corredores para un mejor rendimiento de gama alta en comparación con algunas versiones anteriores del mercado japonés y de Oriente Medio de este motor (los modelos Infiniti I30 2000-2001 agregaron un admisión del guardabarros, aumentando la potencia a 227 PS (224 hp 167 kW)). El VQ30DEK produce 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp). La especificación estadounidense VQ30DE 1995-1999 estaba equipada con un solo colector de admisión de un solo corredor.

  • 1994-1998 Nissan Cefiro (A32), 220 PS (162 kW 217 hp) y 206 libras · pie (279 N · m)
  • 1995-1999 Nissan QX (A32)
  • 1995-1999 Nissan Maxima (A32), 192 PS (141 kW 189 hp) y 205 libras · pie (278 N · m)
  • 1996-1999 Infiniti I30 (A32), 192 PS (141 kW 189 hp) y 205 libras · pie (278 N · m)
  • 2000-2001 Nissan Maxima (A33), 225 PS (165 kW 222 hp) y 217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m) 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp) para Anniversary Edition SE
  • 2000-2001 Infiniti I30 (A33), 230 PS (169 kW 227 hp) y 217 libras · pie (294 N · m)
  • 1999-2003 Nissan Bassara U30, 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp) y 206 libras · pie (279 N · m)
  • 1998-2003 Nissan Presage U30, 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp) y 206 libras · pie (279 N · m)
  • 2002-2004 Dallara SN01, Serie mundial de Nissan

VQ30DET Editar

El 3.0 L (2.987 cc) VQ30DET es una versión turbo del VQ30DE. El diámetro y la carrera siguen siendo los mismos a 93 mm × 73,3 mm (3,66 pulgadas × 2,89 pulgadas) respectivamente, y tiene una relación de compresión de 9,0: 1. Produce 270 PS (199 kW 266 hp) y 271 lb⋅ft (367 N⋅m). A partir de 1998, produce 280 PS (206 kW 276 hp) a 6000 rpm y 285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m) a 3600 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 1995-2004 Nissan Gloria Y33, Y34
  • 1995-2004 Nissan Cedric Y33, Y34
  • 1997-1999 Nissan Leopard Y33
  • 1996-2001 Nissan Cima Y33
  • 2001-2007 Nissan Cima F50

VQ30DETT Editar

El biturbo VQ30DETT es un motor que se usa solo en los autos de carrera de Nissan, principalmente en el Super GT (anteriormente JGTC). Utilizado por primera vez en los autos de carrera Skyline GT-R durante la temporada 2002, este motor impulsó posteriormente los autos de carrera Fairlady Z. Las reglas de homologación les permiten utilizar el VQ30DETT en lugar del VQ35DE original. La potencia de carrera de este motor se estima en alrededor de 480 PS (353 kW 473 hp).

El VQ30DETT fue reemplazado en 2007 por el VK45DE para su uso en el Super GT Fairlady Z y más tarde en el GT-R.

Se utilizó en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 2002-2003 coches de carreras Skyline GT-R JGTC (no producción)
  • 2004 Fairlady Z JGTC autos de carrera (no producción)
  • 2005-2006 autos de carrera Fairlady ZSuper GT (no producción)

VQ35DE Editar

El 3,5 L (3.498 cc) VQ35DE se utiliza en muchos vehículos Nissan modernos. El diámetro y la carrera son de 95,5 mm × 81,4 mm (3,76 pulg. × 3,20 pulg.). Utiliza un diseño de bloque similar al VQ30DE, pero agrega sincronización variable de válvulas (CVTCS). Produce de 231 a 304 PS (170 a 224 kW, 228 a 300 hp) de potencia y 246 a 274 lb⋅ft (334 a 371 N⋅m) de torque, dependiendo de la aplicación.

El VQ35DE está construido en Iwaki y Decherd, TN. Estuvo en la lista de los 10 mejores motores de Ward desde 2002 hasta 2007 y nuevamente en 2016. Cuenta con bielas de acero forjado, un cigüeñal forjado de una pieza microacabado y la tecnología de colector de admisión de nailon de Nissan. Tiene pistones recubiertos de molibdeno de baja fricción y la admisión es un sistema de inducción sintonizado de alto flujo. Desde sus inicios, Nissan ha mejorado el VQ35DE con cambios que lo mantienen como un eficiente motor V6 líder en su clase. El motor se actualizó en 2005 como VQ35DE Rev-up. Incluía sincronización de escape, un límite de revoluciones más alto, así como mejoras internas menores que aumentaban la potencia a 298 caballos de fuerza.

Nismo (la división de deportes de motor y rendimiento de Nissan) produce una versión modificada del VQ35DE, llamada S1, para el Fairlady Z S-Tune GT. Produce 300 PS (221 kW 296 hp) a 7200 rpm, un límite de revoluciones más alto que el del original. VQ35DE.

Años Modelo Salida de potencia
2001–2004 Nissan Pathfinder 240 caballos de fuerza (179 kW 243 PS)
2013–2016 Nissan Pathfinder 260 a 284 caballos de fuerza (194 a 212 kW 264 a 288 PS)
2001–2003 Infiniti QX4 240 caballos de fuerza (179 kW 243 PS)
2001–2004 Infiniti I35 255 caballos de fuerza (190 kW 259 PS)
2002–2018 Nissan Altima 240 a 270 caballos de fuerza (179 a 201 kW 243 a 274 PS)
2002-presente Nissan Maxima 255 a 300 caballos de fuerza (190 a 224 kW 259 a 304 PS)
2002–2006 Nissan 350Z 287 a 300 caballos de fuerza (214 a 224 kW 291 a 304 PS)
2002–2007 Infiniti G35 Coupe 280 a 298 caballos de fuerza (209 a 222 kW 284 a 302 PS)
2002–2006 Infiniti G35 sedán 260 a 298 caballos de fuerza (194 a 222 kW 264 a 302 PS)
2002–2008 Infiniti FX35 280 caballos de fuerza (209 kW 284 PS)
2002-presente Nissan Murano (Z50) 240 a 265 caballos de fuerza (179 a 198 kW 243 a 269 PS)
2003–2016 Nissan Quest 235 a 260 caballos de fuerza (175 a 194 kW 238 a 264 PS)
2004–2008 Infiniti M35 275 a 280 caballos de fuerza (205 a 209 kW 279 a 284 PS)
2012–2013 Infiniti JX35 265 caballos de fuerza (198 kW 269 PS)
2013–2016 Infiniti QX60 265 a 295 caballos de fuerza (198 a 220 kW 269 a 299 PS)

Años Modelo Salida de potencia
2000-presente Nissan Elgrand 240 PS (177 kW 237 caballos de fuerza)
2001–2007 Nissan Stagea 272 PS (200 kW 268 hp) y superior
2001–2009 Renault Vel Satis 241 PS (177 kW 238 caballos de fuerza)
2002–2007 Nissan Skyline (V35) 272 PS (200 kW 268 hp) y superior
2003-presente Nissan Teana / Cefiro (350JM-J31) 231 PS (170 kW 228 caballos de fuerza)
2003–2009 Nissan Presage 231 caballos de fuerza (172 kW 234 PS)
2003–2014 Renault Espace 241 PS (177 kW 238 caballos de fuerza)
2003–2004 Tatuus Fórmula V6, Fórmula Renault V6 Eurocup 370 caballos de fuerza (276 kW 375 PS)
2004–2007 Nissan Fuga 350 GT 300 PS (221 kW 296 caballos de fuerza)
2005–2006 Nismo Fairlady Z S-Tune GT 300 PS (221 kW 296 hp) (motor VQ35DE S1)
2005–2007 Dallara T05, Serie Mundial de Renault 425 PS (313 kW 419 caballos de fuerza)
2006–2020 Renault Samsung SM7 217 PS (160 kW 214 caballos de fuerza) (Neo VQ35)
2008–2015 Renault Laguna Coupé 241 PS (177 kW 238 caballos de fuerza)
2008–2011 Dallara T08, Serie Mundial de Renault 425 PS (313 kW 419 caballos de fuerza)
2010–2015 Renault latitud 253 PS (186 kW 250 caballos de fuerza)
2012-presente Dallara T12, Serie Mundial de Renault 490 PS (360 kW 483 caballos de fuerza)

VQ40DE Editar

los VQ40DE es una variante de carrera más larga de 4.0 L (3.954 cc) del VQ35DE. El diámetro y la carrera son de 95,5 mm × 92 mm (3,76 pulg. × 3,62 pulg.). La relación de compresión es 9.5: 1

Las mejoras incluyen sincronización de válvulas continuamente variable, sistema de admisión variable, cadena de distribución silenciosa, árboles de levas huecos y más ligeros y reducción de la fricción (superficies microacabadas, pistones recubiertos de molibdeno). Es combustible de puerto inyectado con bujías con punta de platino. Produce 261 a 275 hp (195 a 205 kW 265 a 279 PS) a 5600 rpm y 281 a 288 lb⋅ft (381 a 390 N⋅m) a 4000 rpm.

Años Modelo Salida de potencia Esfuerzo de torsión
2005–2019 Nissan frontera (D40) 268 caballos de fuerza (200 kW 272 PS) a 5600 rpm 285 libras · pie (386 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2005–2015 Nissan Xterra 271 caballos de fuerza (202 kW 275 PS) a 5600 rpm 294 libras · pie (399 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2005–2012 Nissan Pathfinder 269 ​​caballos de fuerza (201 kW 273 PS) a 5600 rpm 290 libras · pie (393 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2009–2013 Suzuki Ecuador 276 caballos de fuerza (206 kW 280 PS) a 5600 rpm 283 libras · pie (384 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2012-presente Nissan NV1500 270 caballos de fuerza (201 kW 274 PS) a 5600 rpm 291 libras · pie (395 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2012-presente Nissan NV2500 HD 271 caballos de fuerza (202 kW 275 PS) a 5600 rpm 282 libras · pie (382 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2012-presente Nissan NV Pasajero 269 ​​caballos de fuerza (201 kW 273 PS) a 5600 rpm 294 libras · pie (399 N · m) a 4000 rpm
2017-presente Patrulla Nissan 275 caballos de fuerza (205 kW 279 PS) a 5600 rpm 291 libras · pie (395 N · m) a 4000 rpm

La serie DD es una variante de los motores de la serie DE con inyección directa de combustible (NEO-Di) y eVTC (sincronización de válvulas continuamente variable controlada electrónicamente).

VQ25DD Editar

El motor de 2,5 L (2495 cc) tiene un diámetro y una carrera de 85 mm y 73,3 mm respectivamente, con una relación de compresión de 11 a 11,3: 1. Produce 209.9 PS (154.4 kW 207.0 hp) a 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp) a 6400 rpm y 195 a 199 lb⋅ft (264 a 270 N⋅m) a 4400 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 1999-2002 Nissan Cefiro A33, 209.9 PS (154.4 kW 207.0 hp) (JDM)
  • 1999-2004 Nissan Cedric / Nissan Gloria
  • 2001-2006 Nissan Skyline V35, 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp)
  • 2001-2007 Nissan Stagea M35, 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp)

VQ30DD Editar

El motor de 3,0 L (2987 cc) tiene un diámetro y una carrera de 93 mm y 73,3 mm, con una relación de compresión de 11,0: 1. Produce 231.54 PS (170.30 kW 228.37 hp) a 258.78 PS (190.33 kW 255.24 hp) a 6400 rpm y 217 a 239 lb⋅ft (294 a 324 N⋅m) a 3600 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

  • 1997-1999 Nissan Leopard Y33 231 PS (170 kW 228 hp) y 217 libras · pie (294 N · m)
  • 1999-2004 Nissan Cedric Y34
  • 1999-2004 Nissan Gloria Y34 245 PS (180 kW 242 hp) y 228 libras · pie (309 N · m)
  • 2001-2004 Nissan Skyline V35
  • 2001-2004 Nissan Stagea M35 258,78 PS (190,33 kW 255,24 hp) y 239 libras · pie (324 N · m)

VQ35DD Editar

Se lanza un 3.5L más grande con inyección directa para el año modelo 2017.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

VQ38DD Editar

Se lanza una versión de 3.8 L con inyección directa para el año modelo 2020.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

VQ25HR Editar

El 2.5 L VQ25HR (para "Alta revolución" o "Alta respuesta") solo se ofrece en vehículos con motor montado longitudinalmente que tienden a tener tracción trasera o tracción total. El diámetro y la carrera son de 85 mm × 73,3 mm (3,35 pulgadas × 2,89 pulgadas), con una relación de compresión de 10,3: 1. Produce 221-228 PS (163-168 kW 218-225 hp) a 6.800 rpm y 194 lb⋅ft (263 N⋅m) a 4.800 rpm. Tiene doble CVTC tanto para admisión como para escape, árboles de levas microacabados y una línea roja de 7.500 rpm.

Se instala en los siguientes vehículos:

Años Modelo Salida de potencia
2006–2012 Nissan Skyline V6 250GT Sedán 229 PS (168 kW 226 caballos de fuerza)
2006–2012 Nissan Fuga 250GT 223 PS (164 kW 220 caballos de fuerza)
2006–2012 Infiniti M V6 M25 Sedán 218 caballos de fuerza (163 kW 221 PS)
2010–2012 Infiniti EX J50 EX25 Crossover SUV 222 PS (163 kW 219 caballos de fuerza)
2011–2012 Infiniti G25 sedán 218 caballos de fuerza (163 kW 221 PS)
2012 Mitsubishi Proudia 250 VIP 223 PS (164 kW 220 caballos de fuerza)

VQ35HR Editar

The VQ35HR engine was first seen in the US with the introduction of the updated 2007 G35 Sedan model, which debuted in August 2006. Nissan updated the VQ line with the addition of the 3.5 L VQ35HR (for "High Revolution"). It produces 315 PS (232 kW 311 hp) (US market: 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS) using the revised SAE certified power benchmark) at 6,800 rpm and 37 kg⋅m (363 N⋅m 268 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 rpm, using a compression ratio of 10.6:1. As of 2009, the Infiniti EX35 produces 297 hp (221 kW 301 PS) and the same torque presumably due to tighter regulations. It has NDIS (Nissan Direct Ignition System) and CVTC with hydraulic actuation on the intake cam and electromagnetic on the exhaust cam. Redline is 7,600 rpm. Reportedly over 80% of the internal components were redesigned or strengthened to handle an increased RPM range sporting a lofty 7,600 rpm redline. A new dual-path intake (two air cleaners, throttle bodies, etc.) lowers intake tract restriction by 18 percent and new equal-length exhaust manifolds lead into mufflers that are 25 percent more free-flowing for all around better airflow. The electrically actuated variable valve timing on the exhaust cams to broaden the torque curve is new over the "DE" engine. The new engine block retained the same bore and stroke, but the connecting rods were lengthened and the block deck was raised by 8.4 mm to reduce piston side-loads. This modification, along with the use of larger crank bearings with main bearing caps reinforced by a rigid ladder-type main cap girdle to allow the engine reliably rev to 7600 rpm. With an increase in compression ratio from 10.3:1 to 10.6:1 these changes add 6 more horsepower (306 hp (228 kW) total + 3 hp ram air effect not measured by SAE testing = 309 hp (230 kW)). Peak torque is up 8 pound-feet from the older "DE" engine, 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) vs 268 lb⋅ft (363 N⋅m) and the torque curve is higher and flatter across most of the rpm range, and especially in the lower rpm range. The VQ35HR was utilized in rear-wheel-drive platforms while the VQ35DE continued to power Nissan's front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 2010, Nissan introduced a hybrid version of the VQ35HR, pairing the engine to a lithium-ion battery pack.

Years Modelo Power output
2007–2008 Infiniti G35 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS)
2007–2008 Nissan Skyline V36 350GT Sedan 308 hp (230 kW 312 PS)
2007–2008 Nissan 350Z 313 hp (233 kW 317 PS) US Market using revised SAE certified power benchmark - 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS)
2006–2008 Nissan Fuga 350 GT 308 hp (230 kW 312 PS)
2008–2012 Infiniti EX35 Crossover SUV 297 hp (221 kW 301 PS)
2009–2012 Infiniti FX35 Crossover SUV 303 hp (226 kW 307 PS)
2009–2010 Infiniti M35 303 hp (226 kW 307 PS)
2011–2013 Infiniti M35h Engine: 302 hp (225 kW 306 PS), Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2010–present Nissan Fuga Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2012–2020 Nissan Cima Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2012–2016 Mitsubishi Dignity Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2014–present Infiniti Q50 Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2014–2019 Infiniti Q70 Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)

VQ38HR Edit

By 2007, Nissan's ambition to increase the competitiveness of the Z33 chassis in Super Taikyu racing resulted in the development of a larger displacement engine based on the original VQ35HR Block. The end result was the VQ38HR powered Nismo Type 380RS-C which went on to dominate ST class 1 racing. The 3.8-liter racing engine in the 380RS-C develops maximum power of more than 294 kW (394 hp 400 PS), and maximum torque of 421 N⋅m (311 lb⋅ft). [1] In order to use this new engine in Super GT GT500, limited numbers of the engine were reproduced in the street-legal Fairlady Z Nismo Type 380RS. The VQ38HR engine mounted in the 380RS is a detuned, street version of the racing engine used in the 380RS-C. The engine displacement remains the same, while the intake manifold and exhaust, air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, VTC and other specs have been optimized for street use. The engine produces maximum power of 257 kW (345 hp 349 PS) at 7200 rpm, and maximum torque of 397 N⋅m (293 lb⋅ft) at 4800 rpm. [2]

The VQ38HR fitted to the following vehicles:

  • 2007–2008 Nissan Fairlady Z Version Nismo Type 380RS-C
  • 2007–2008 Nissan Fairlady Z Version Nismo Type 380RS

Producción Editar

The VQ35HR and VQ25HR engines were built at Nissan's Iwaki Plant in Fukushima Prefecture. [3] [4]

The VHR series is a variation of the VQ-HR engine series with Nissan's VVEL (Variable Valve Event and Lift).

VQ37VHR Edit

It was the first production engine from Nissan using VVEL. It has a compression ratio of 11.0:1, with a displacement of 3.7 L 225.5 cu in (3,696 cc), thanks to a bore x stroke of 95.5 mm × 86 mm (3.76 in × 3.39 in) and a redline of 7,500 rpm. It is rated at 332 bhp (337 PS 248 kW) at 7,000 rpm and 270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) of torque at 5,200 rpm, and up to 350 bhp (355 PS 261 kW) at 7,400 rpm and 276 lb⋅ft (374 N⋅m) of torque at 5,200 rpm. Although the engine VQ37VHR gains only 2 lb⋅ft (3 N⋅m) and 8 lb⋅ft (11 N⋅m) in the Nissan 370Z Nismo, torque over the VQ35HR and this higher torque arrives at 5,200 rpm vs 4,800 rpm in the VQ35HR, the torque curve itself is improved and flattened via VVEL variable valve timing for better throttle response and low rpm torque.


Contenido

The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in May 1996, [1] [2] with the goal of making the service public five years later. [3]

Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in San Francisco, California, [4] in October 2001, [5] [6] primarily to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or when a website is shut down. [7] The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three-dimensional index". [8] Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge". [9] The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a fictional time-traveling and translation device, the "Wayback Machine", used by the characters Mister Peabody and Sherman in the animated cartoon The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends. [10] [11] In one of the cartoon's segments, "Peabody's Improbable History", the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, and often alter famous events in history.

From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the "clunky" database. [12] When the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. [13] By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it already contained over 10 billion archived pages. [14] The data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes. [9] It revisits and archives new versions of websites on occasion (see technical details below). [15] Sites can also be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. [3]

On October 30, 2020, the Wayback Machine began fact-checking content. [dieciséis]

Software has been developed to "crawl" the Web and download all publicly accessible information and data files on webpages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews (Usenet) bulletin board system, and downloadable software. [17] The information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible. To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, and create digital archives. [18]

Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. [15] For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl. [15] The "Worldwide Web Crawls" have been running since 2010 and capture the global Web. [15] [19]

The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. [15] Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. [15] A crawl can take months or even years to complete, depending on size. [15] For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, and completed on July 11, 2016. [20] However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, and a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how often a site is crawled varies widely. [15]

As of October 2019, users are limited to 5 archival requests and retrievals per minute. [ cita necesaria ] [ ¿Por qué? ]

Storage capacity and growth Edit

As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month. The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became fully operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that. [21] [22]

The Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, and hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. [23] As of 2009 [update] , the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. [24]

A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. [25] In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, and will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, and no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." [26] Also in 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. [27]

In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. [28]

In October 2013, the company introduced the "Save a Page" feature [29] [30] which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL, and quickly generates a permanent link unlike the preceding liveweb característica.

In December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, and was growing at about 20 terabytes a week. [14] [31] [32]

In March 2015, [ date verification needed ] security researchers became aware of the threat posed by the service's unintentional hosting of malicious binaries from archived sites. [33] [34]

In July 2016, the Wayback Machine reportedly contained around 15 petabytes of data. [35]

In September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained over 25 petabytes of data. [36] [37]

As of December 2020, the Wayback Machine contained over 70 petabytes of data. [38]

Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 [41] to 208. [42] In March 2019 the rank was at 244. [43]

Website exclusion policy Edit

Historically, Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard (robots.txt) in determining if a website would be crawled – or if already crawled, if its archives would be publicly viewable. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots.txt. It applied robots.txt rules retroactively if a site blocked the Internet Archive, any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well. In addition, the Internet Archive stated that "Sometimes a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests." [44] In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection." [45] [46]

On April 17, 2017, reports surfaced of sites that had gone defunct and became parked domains that were using robots.txt to exclude themselves from search engines, resulting in them being inadvertently excluded from the Wayback Machine. [47] The Internet archive changed the policy to now require an explicit exclusion request to remove it from the Wayback Machine. [48]

Oakland Archive Policy Edit

Wayback's retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests and Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, which gives a website owner the right to block access to the site's archives. [49] Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation. [50]

The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017, when it stopped honoring robots.txt on U.S. government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages. As of April 2017, Wayback is ignoring robots.txt more broadly, not just for U.S. government websites. [51] [52] [53] [54]

From its public launch in 2001, the Wayback Machine has been studied by scholars both for the ways it stores and collects data as well as for the actual pages contained in its archive. As of 2013, scholars had written about 350 articles on the Wayback Machine, mostly from the information technology, library science, and social science fields. Social science scholars have used the Wayback Machine to analyze how the development of websites from the mid-1990s to the present has affected the company's growth. [14]

When the Wayback Machine archives a page, it usually includes most of the hyperlinks, keeping those links active when they just as easily could have been broken by the Internet's instability. Researchers in India studied the effectiveness of the Wayback Machine's ability to save hyperlinks in online scholarly publications and found that it saved slightly more than half of them. [55]

"Journalists use the Wayback Machine to view dead websites, dated news reports, and changes to website contents. Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies." [56] In 2014, an archived social media page of Igor Girkin, a separatist rebel leader in Ukraine, showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet (Malaysia Airlines Flight 17), after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine's military for downing the plane. [56] [57] In 2017, the March for Science originated from a discussion on Reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive.org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website. In response, a user commented, "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington". [58] [59] [60]

Furthermore, the site is used heavily for verification, providing access to references and content creation by Wikipedia editors. [61]

In September 2020, a partnership was announced with Cloudflare to automatically archive websites served via its "Always Online" service, which will also allow it to direct users to its copy of the site if it cannot reach the original host. [62]

Limitations Edit

In 2014 there was a six-month lag time between when a website was crawled and when it became available for viewing in the Wayback Machine. [63] Currently, the lag time is 3 to 10 hours. [64] The Wayback Machine offers only limited search facilities. Its "Site Search" feature allows users to find a site based on words describing the site, rather than words found on the web pages themselves. [sesenta y cinco]

The Wayback Machine does not include every web page ever made due to the limitations of its web crawler. The Wayback Machine cannot completely archive web pages that contain interactive features such as Flash platforms and forms written in JavaScript and progressive web applications, because those functions require interaction with the host website. This means that, since June 2013, the Wayback Machine has been unable to display YouTube comments when saving YouTube pages, as, according to the Archive Team, comments are no longer "loaded within the page itself." [66] The Wayback Machine's web crawler has difficulty extracting anything not coded in HTML or one of its variants, which can often result in broken hyperlinks and missing images. Due to this, the web crawler cannot archive "orphan pages" that are not linked to by other pages. [65] [67] The Wayback Machine's crawler only follows a predetermined number of hyperlinks based on a preset depth limit, so it cannot archive every hyperlink on every page. [19]

Starting in April 2018, administrative staff members of the Wayback Machine's archive team have enforced the Quarter month rule, by occasionally deleting time intervals of 23 days or 39 days (3/4 and 5/4 of a month, respectively), in order to reduce the queue size. [ cita necesaria ]

In legal evidence Edit

Civil litigation Edit

Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. Editar

In a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc., defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots.txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula's site, pages that Chordiant believed would support its case. [68]

Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula's website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly. [69] An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant's motion, however, stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means "without considerable burden, expense and disruption to its operations." [68]

Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, rejected Netbula's arguments and ordered them to disable the robots.txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought. [68]

Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite Editar

In an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No. 02 C 3293, 65 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 673 (N.D. Ill. October 15, 2004), a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska's website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska's assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial. [70] [71] At the trial, however, District Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e., the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported web page, printouts were not self-authenticating. [72] [73]

Patent law Edit

Provided some additional requirements are met (e.g., providing an authoritative statement of the archivist), the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public. These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application. [74]

Limitations of utility Edit

There are technical limitations to archiving a website, and as a consequence, it is possible for opposing parties in litigation to misuse the results provided by website archives. This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screenshots of web pages in complaints, answers, or expert witness reports when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore, can contain errors. For example, archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore, do not include the contents of non-RESTful e-commerce databases in their archives. [75]

In Europe, the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws. Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated, so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator. [76] The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site. [77]

A number of cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts.

Scientology Edit

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine. [78] An error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". [79] Later, it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed. [80]

Healthcare Advocates, Inc. Edit

In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid, based on the content of their website from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine, however, some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback. [81] The lawsuit was settled out of court, after Wayback fixed the problem. [82]

Suzanne Shell Edit

Activist Suzanne Shell filed suit in December 2005, demanding Internet Archive pay her US$100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004. [83] [84] Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell's copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service. [85] On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract. [84] The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which would also go forward. [86]

On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit. [83] The Internet Archive said it ". has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation." Shell said, "I respect the historical value of Internet Archive's goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm." [87]

Daniel Davydiuk Edit

Between 2013 and 2016, a pornographic actor named Daniel Davydiuk tried to remove archived images of himself from the Wayback Machine's archive, first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive, and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada. [88] [89] [90]

Archive.org is currently blocked in China. [91] [92] After the Islamic State terrorist organization was banned, the Internet Archive had been blocked in its entirety in Russia as a host of an outreach video from that organization, for a short time in 2015–16. [56] [93] [94] [ necesita actualización ] Since 2016 the website has been back, available in its entirety, although local commercial lobbyists are suing the Internet Archive in a local court to ban it on copyright grounds. [95]

Alison Macrina, director of the Library Freedom Project, notes that "while librarians deeply value individual privacy, we also strongly oppose censorship". [56]

There are known rare cases where online access to content which "for nothing" has put people in danger was disabled by the website. [56] [ aclaración necesaria ]

Other threats include natural disasters, [96] destruction (remote or physical), [97] manipulation of the archive's contents (see also: cyberattack, backup), problematic copyright laws [98] and surveillance of the site's users. [99]

Alexander Rose, executive director of the Long Now Foundation, suspects that in the long-term of multiple generations "next to nothing" will survive in a useful way, stating, "If we have continuity in our technological civilization, I suspect a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable. But I suspect almost nothing of the format in which it was delivered will be recognizable", because sites "with deep back-ends of content-management systems like Drupal and Ruby and Django" are harder to archive. [100]

In an article reflecting on the preservation of human knowledge, El Atlántico has commented that the Internet Archive, which describes itself to be built for the long-term, [101] "is working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long-term infrastructure to speak of." [102]


Pioneers of the Field

Este libro ha sido citado por las siguientes publicaciones. Esta lista se genera en base a los datos proporcionados por CrossRef.
  • Editorial: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: August 2016
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online ISBN: 9781316584187
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316584187
  • Series: The International African Library (51)
  • Subjects: Area Studies, African Studies, Social and Cultural Anthropology, History, Anthropology: General Interest, Anthropology, African History

Envíe un correo electrónico a su bibliotecario o administrador para recomendarle que agregue este libro a la colección de su organización.

Descripción del libro

Focusing on the crucial contributions of women researchers, Andrew Bank demonstrates that the modern school of social anthropology in South Africa was uniquely female-dominated. The book traces the personal and intellectual histories of six remarkable women through the use of a rich cocktail of archival sources, including family photographs, private and professional correspondence, field-notes and field diaries, published and other public writings and even love letters. The book also sheds new light on the close connections between their personal lives, their academic work and their anti-segregationist and anti-apartheid politics. It will be welcomed by anthropologists, historians and students in African studies interested in the development of social anthropology in twentieth-century Africa, as well as by students and researchers in the field of gender studies.

Reseñas

‘Andrew Bank has made a major contribution to intellectual history in a volume that recognises the role played by six women anthropologists who were major contributors to the creation of a distinctive South African voice in anthropology: Winifred Hoernle, Audrey Richards, Monica Hunter Wilson, Hilda Beemer Kuper, Ellen Hellman and Eileen Jensen Krige. All, with the exception of Audrey Richards, were South African by birth. They were headed by Winifred Hoernle, founder of the anthropology department at the University of Witswatersrand. She was an inspiring teacher and mentor who encouraged her students to read widely, think deeply, and do superb ethnographic studies that focused on the contemporary world of Southern Africa with its reserves, farms, small towns and mining centres. Somehow these women have largely been forgotten by successors who owed them much but did not know it. This work celebrates their enduring contribution to the study of African life and the development of the anthropological discipline.'

Elizabeth Colson - University of California, Berkeley

‘Original, meticulously researched and eminently readable, Andrew Bank's landmark study in the history of South African anthropology in its formative phase is a major corrective to the male-dominated view in which the achievements of women anthropologists were greatly undervalued. Aside from its main thesis, the compelling human interest of this book lies in the finely drawn and richly documented biographical portraits of six talented women, ‘foremothers' of the Wits anthropology department. Four of these remarkable women were star pupils of Bronislaw Malinowski, whose innovative fieldwork methods they deployed to great effect in their ethnographic accounts. Andrew Bank has succeeded brilliantly in bringing their lives and works together in an engagingly written narrative celebrating their humanist legacy.'

Michael Young - Australian National University, Canberra

‘Andrew Bank's insightful scholarship provides a much-needed revision not only to the history of South African anthropology, but to the history of socio-cultural anthropology in general. His vivid portraits of six outstanding South African women social anthropologists beginning with the dynamic Winifred Hoernle and continuing with her exceptional female students - lead us to amend the heretofore androcentric history of social anthropology in South Africa. But perhaps even more significantly, Bank presents a compelling argument that causes us to appreciate the important role these women - and by association, social anthropology - played in the anti-apartheid movement and the transformation of race relations in twentieth-century South Africa.'

Nancy Lutkehaus - University of Southern California

‘This penetrating study of pioneering women academics in South Africa and beyond explores the tensions between personal, scholarly and political engagements. A major contribution to African studies, it will also enrich - and complicate - current debates about the public role of anthropology.'

Adam Kuper - Centennial Professor, London School of Economics and Political Science

'[In] Pioneers of the Field Bank has made an important contribution to the history of social anthropology by reclaiming the place of its foremothers.'

Anne Heffernan Source: Africa at LSE Blog (www.blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse)

‘Andrew Bank has provided us with a panoply of new stories and a range of far-reaching analyses that will, for many years to come, inform our teaching, research, writing and, perhaps, even our sense of what on earth anthropology was and is all about.’


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